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C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L0119 • Johann Georg Siegesbeck to Carl Linnaeus, 28 December 1736 n.s.
Dated 17 Dec. st.v. CCXXXVI. Sent from St Petersburg (Russia) to Amsterdam (Netherlands). Written in Latin.

Viro Clarissimo et Experientissimo,
D[omi]n[o] D[octo]r[i] Carolo Linnaeo,
s[alutem] p[lurimam] d[icit]
Jo[hannes] Georgius Siegesbeck.

Quo vehementius obitum Tuum, de quo nescio unde hic inter eruditos fama fuit, hucusque dolui, eo majori laetitia me adfecerunt litterae Tuae die 22 Nov[embris] st[yli] n[ovi] An[ni] curr[entis] Amstelodamo missae et die 15 Dec[embris] st[yli] n[ovi] ad me perlatae.[1] Faxit clementissimum, quod adoramus, Numen, ut talis, qui sic evanuit, rumor ad eo firmiorem tam corporis incolumitatem quam animi alacritatem omnigena prosperitate stipatam vergat, id quod praecipue sub instans novi anni auspicium ex animo Tibi adprecor ac voveo.

Ut vero ad contenta in litteris Tuis Botanica deveniam, libentissime percipio Praenobiliss[imo] et Consultiss[imo] D[omi]n[o] D[octo]ri CliffortioClifford, George (1685-1760).
Dutch. Banker and merchant in Amsterdam,
Linnaeus’s benefactor. Owner of
Hartecamp and its botanical garden
outside Haarlem. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
perplacere commercium litterarium Botanicum nobiscum instituendum. Et sane tam Nostrae quam Illius Florae multum interesse et sic optime consultum iri puto. Quo enim liberaliori manu nobiscum communicabit imposterum non solum semina Americana sed et ex Capite Bonae Spei et Insula Zeylona allata, quibus sine dubio ob commodam eadem cum navibus acquirendi occasionem non indigebit Hortus Celeberrimus Cliffortianus,[2] eo largius et promtius talia compensare studebit Flora Ruthenica, hac tamen cum praemonitione, ut pro tempore semina nostra non ex paucitate et numero, sed potius ex raritate et praestantia aestimari sibi expetant. Quum enim Flora nostra adhuc novella sit et iuxta proverbium omne initium grave huicque in locis valde dissitis Correspondentia Botanica paullo difficilius in ordinem redigatur, praesertim inter tales personas, qui quidem quum sint Medici, Chirurgi, Pharmacopoei, attamen in cognitione Plantarum, ut fieri solet, parum versati, hinc pauciores hucusque obtinere potuimus plantas et semina. Nihilo tamen secius talis iam Correspondentiae Botanicae instituta est subordinatio, ut sperare fas sit largiorem imposterum seminum et plantarum Asiaticarum rariorum messem in Floram nostram non posse non redundare. Et tali quoque ratione mitto iam denuo semina quaedam, partim a me ipso, partim etiam a D[omi]n[o] D[octo]r[e] GerberoGerber, Traugott (1710-1743).
German. Medical doctor, botanist,
director of the oldest botanical garden
in Moscow..
Moscuae praeterita aestate recenter conlecta, sique interim plura, ut speramus, ex Asiae tractibus remotioribus ad nos pertingant, ea certissime adhuc transmittentur.

Sed libentius viderem, ut seminum a Te promissorum Americanorum transmissio non tamdiu differratur, usque dum hieme discedente navis illa advehere possit, sed potius impense optarem, ut, quantocyus fieri posset, per posta[m] saltim mense Martio illa possemus impetrare. Non solum enim ratio Climatis huius paullo frigidioris ob aestatis fugacitatem suadet, ut mox primo Vere semina Exotica vaporariis concredantur, sed et incertum et periculosum fore reor talia navibus committere. Sic namque et Systema Tuum Naturae,[3] Musa Cliffortiana[4] et Fundamenta Botanica[5] a Te transmissa cum ipsa, ni fallor, nave amissa erunt, quum ad hunc diem illa nondum viderim.

Tot eximia et praetiosa Opera Botanica in Belgio a Viris celeberrimis iam adornari et imposterum speranda esse in sinu gaudeo. Avideque simul expeto omnia Tua scripta hucusque evulgata, pro quibus mea libentissime reddam. Modo hic in Officina Libraria prostarent, iam diu mihi illa comparassem. Ad Catalogum vero Horti nostri Medici[6] quod attinet, ille quidem iam sub finem Augusti mensis Typographiae Academicae traditus. Sed quum ex invidiosa quadam, ut videtur, retardatione in medium Novembrem usque illius impressio protracta fuerit, Excellentissimus D[omi]n[us] Archiater[7] noster morae tandem pertaesus illum ex Typographia repetere et ad imprimendum Rigam mittere iussit. An vero ibidem prelum iam subierit, me latet. Si vero illum impetravero, tunc prima nave Amstelodamum petente eum obtinebis.[8] Continet iste Catalogus recensionem 1260 plantarum tam Indigenarum quam Exoticarum, quas praeterlapsa aestate in Horto nostro aluimus, inter quas plantae quaedam Tataricae rariores plane nondum descriptae.

Caeterum grates Tibi habeo summas pro honore et amore prorsus singulari, quo me prosequeris. Sed nescio sane, an tantus inter nostri aevi Botanicos emineam, cuius memoria ac nomen tali ratione ipsam plantarum tribum constituere debeat. Et sane, si pace Tua id fieri posset, deprecarer omnino talem honorem in me decretum et digniori in hac palaestra facile concederem. Equidem gloriam meam non quero et talis denominatio plane non fit ex mea instigatione. Tu ipse, Vir Clarissime, nominis rationem reddes et defendes imposterum adversus hominum malevolorum tela.[9] Interim tamen semina tam curiosa et plantam inde pronascentem mihi forte plane adhuc incognitam libenter oculis lustrarem. Hinc grana quaedam enixe efflagito.

Campanula Serpillifolia Casp[aro] BauhinoBauhin, Caspar (1560-1624).
Swiss. Botanist and physician, Basle.
Bauhin’s Prodromus and Pinax
theatri botanici
(1620, 1623, 1671)
were important works in the field of
botanical nomenclature.
sive Serpillifolia BuxbaumioBuxbaum, Johann Christian
(1693-1730). German. Professor of
botany, St Petersburg.
dicta hic in silvis umbrosis Insulae Basilii, quae una ex maximis Urbis Petropoleos tractibus, abunde nascitur. Unde praeterita aestate in Hortum nostrum translocata etiam inter nives adhuc viret. Instante autem aestate D[eo] v[olente] semina illius sic commode colligere potero, quae tunc Tecum communicare non deero. Et modo locorum intercapedo non prohiberet, Tibi scatulam cum ipsis plantis recentibus libenter transmitterem. In Catalogo Horti nostri Medici sub Obulariae titulo illam recensui, eo quod primo intuitu Numulariae formam prae se ferat et tamen Flore ac semine ab illa se distinguat. Ad Campanulae vero censum prorsus non pertineat, nec Serpillifoliae per se nomen satis adaequatum fuerit visum. Nescivi vero penitus hanc ipsam plantam solis regionibus Borealibus indigenam in honorem Tui a GronovioGronovius, Johan Frederik
(1690-1762). Dutch. Naturalist, senator
of Leiden. Linnaeus’s benefactor and
friend. Published Flora Virginica
(1743, 1762) together with John Clayton.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
iam vocatam fuisse Linnaeam.[10] Alius hoc nomen in ipso Catalogo nostro retinuissem.

Trigonellae DilleniiDillenius, Johann Jacob
(1684-1747). German/British. Studied at
Giessen. Sherardian professor of botany
at Oxford. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
plantam illiusque semina hucusque ad me nondum perlata mihi etiam habebo commendata.

Betula nova Suecorum sive Betula palustris pumila foliis parvis, rotundis Ol[ai] CelsiiCelsius, Olof (1670-1756).
Swedish. Orientalist and theologian,
professor at Uppsala. Botanist and plant
collector, benefactor of Linnaeus.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
in Catal[ogo] Plant[arum] circa Upsaliam sponte nascentium[11] hic etiam circa Petropolin sponte occurrit. Mihi quidem adhuc nondum obviam facta. Asseveravit tamen non solum D[omi]n[us] Prof[essor] AmmannusAmman, Johann (1707-1741).
Swiss/Russian?. Curator of Hans Sloane’s
natural history collection. Professor of
botany at the Imperial Academy of
Sciences at St Petersburg. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
, quod in Insula Basilii prognascatur, sed et ostendit mihi exemplar siccum a se collectum. Postea allatum quoque est Herbarii Vivi specimen a Chirurgo quodam circa Kolam sicque sub 70 circiter elevationis Poli Septentrionalis gradu praeterita aestate conquisitum. Cui etiam Betulae illius exemplar insertum, ut sic etiam in Lapponia Moscovitica proveniat. Insuper Chr[istiani] MentzeliiMentzel, Christian (1622-1701).
German. Botanist, physician and
sinologist, Berlin.
Lexicon Plantarum Polyglotton Universale,[12] pag. 47, recenset Betulam pusillam 3 L. Hinc evolvens Jo[hannis] LoeseliiLoeselius, Johannes
(1607-1655). German. Botanist and
physician. Professor of medicine in
Königsberg 1639-1655.
Floram Prussicam[13] a Gottschedio editam, p. 27, lego: Betula pumila 3. L. Cubitalis et productior saepe est foliis subrotundis, Julis crassis et curtis simulque indicatur locus natalis. Ergo et in Borussia crescit.

Rhagrostis binas species, quas Buxbaum in Plantarum minus Cognitarum Centuria Tertia,[14] Tab. LV, LVI, in medium proponit, cum ipsis exemplaribus siccis tam Corispermi Jussieu quam Corispermi Tatarici maioris caulibus purpurascentibus Herbario quodam Vivo a D[omi]n[o] HeintzelmannoHeinzelmann, Johann Gottfried
(?-?). German. Botanist. Travelled in
eastern Russia.
S[acrae] R[egiae] Maj[estatis] Historiographo in itinere per Siberiam et alias regiones Tataricas conlecto quodque in Horto nostro Medico asservatur, insertis contuli. Et omnino iuxta Claris[simi] Ammanni assertum multum haec ad illas accedere observavi. Hinc quum adhuc semina quaedam ex eo ipso Herbario vivo a plantis siccis depromta ad manus essent, illa iam exemplaris Rhagrostis exsiccati loco communico, ubi quidem de germinatione illorum et quod forte vetustiora sint minus dubitandum. Praeterea enim, quod Herbarium illud Vivum per aestates 1734, 1735 congestum sit, ipse iam praeterita aestate 1736 experimentum cum istis seminibus institui et praeter spem bina exempla Corispermi Tatarici progerminarunt, licet sub dio satae tam ob ardores Solis vehementiores quam pluviam mox frigidiorem supervenientem non diu durarint. Sed ipse adhuc semel instante Vere d[eo] v[olente] cum illis experimentum suscipiam et Vaporario inseram. Sunt vero Corisperma ista ex genere Dicotyledonum et bina illorum folia seminalia assimilantur Psyllii foliis. Quales exhibeant flores in exemplaribus siccis iam semine maturo praeditis, non facile est cognitu. Sine dubio tamen erunt Imperfecti, staminei. Semina vero nuda sunt perianthiis quasi paleaceis infixa. Caeterum Cl[arissimus] DilleniusDillenius, Johann Jacob
(1684-1747). German/British. Studied at
Giessen. Sherardian professor of botany
at Oxford. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
in Recensione Novorum Plantarum Generum, Catalogo Plantarum circa Gissam sponte nascentium[15] adjecta, pag. 160, ex Memoriis Acad[emiae] Scientiar[um] Paris[iensis]Académie royale des sciences,
Paris,
Histoire de
l'Académie Royale des Sciences
année [...] : avec les
Mémoires de Mathématique
& de Physique, pour la même
année [...] : tirés des
registres de cette Académie

(1699-1789).
allegat Corispermum a D[omi]n[o] Jussieu sic vocari ex seminis similitudine, quam cum cimice obtineat: {img-L0119-a.gif+greek} [sic][16] enim Graecis Cimicem et {img-L0119-b.gif+greek}[17] semen significare. Sed fateor mihi displicere hoc nomen ideo, quod non solum imaginatio et idea nimis coacta requiratur pro concilianda seminum horum figura cum cimice (id, quod ipse in seminibus iam transmissis facile poteris observare), sed etiam, quod aliud insuper plantarum genus Coridis titulo in Foro Botanico iam cognitum sit, quum vero hoc habeat Florem perfectum, simplicem, Irregularem, Monopetalum et semina Pericarpio globoso, Multicapsulari, inclusa sicque nullam prorsus cum Corispermo Jussieu connexionem habeat. Nihilo tamen secius ex denominatione tali putabunt nonnulli (et quidem pari ratione ac planta Africana Anemonospermos dicitur, quod semina Anemonae seminibus similia habeat, licet Flore discrepet) semina Corispermi, sic vocati, assimilari Coridis seminibus.

Video etiam, Vir Clarissime et mihi Colendissime, quod proximo Augusto Amstelodamo discedere in animum iam induxeris. Quodsi ergo fortasse iter tunc ad patrios lares directum fuerit, peto, ut Botanices gratia inde vel navi per Sinum Finnicum vel etiam in terra continenti per Finlandiam Petropolin pergas. Poteris sic Hortum nostrum Medicum, qui sane est optime situs omnibusque requisitis ad Botanicen excolendam instructus, hincque dignus, qui perlustretur, ipse oculis intueri. Cernes simul in eo varias plantas siccas rariores et nondum descriptas, qui continentur in Speciminibus quibusdam Herbariorum Vivorum ad Mare Caspium circa Derbentum, ut et in Lapponia Moscovitica circa Kolam, in Tataria minore Europaea circa Asoffium et praecipue in itineribus per Siberiam et Tatariam Magnam Asiaticam collectorum, in quo ultimo satis spisso ultra Centum plantae rariores et nondum descriptae visuntur, e.g. Veronica quaedam spicata foliis utrinque incanis floribus intense coeruleis elegantissimis, Limonium floribus magnis coeruleis speciosis, Hedysarum foliis utrinque incanis, sericeis, lucidis floribus coeruleis vel albis, Cotyledonis species ad montes Uralenses proveniens, etc. Quarum omnium semina recentia, ut D[omi]n[us] Heinzelmannus in denuo peragendo itinere colligat, coram petii. Porro et videbis Catalogum Florae Sibericae[18] per septem annos in itineribus a D[omi]n[o] D[octo]r[e] MesserschmiedMesserschmied, Daniel Gottlieb
(1685-1735). German. Botanist.
Travelled in Siberia.
Gedanensi conscriptum adjectis plantarum quarundam rariorum Iconibus, coloribus ad vivum illuminatis. In hocce Catalogo inter reliqua recensentur Calceolus maior flore luteo et flore purpureo, Calceolus minor flore luteo, ut et flore coccineo maculis albis variegato, etc., immo ultra Centum etiam Plantae nondum descriptae. Quodsi huc accesseris, divertere poteris, si placuerit, in domicilio meo in ipso Horto Medico sito. Eris mihi meisque gratus hospes. Interim officiose salutes[a][a] : MS1 <[illegible]>
salutes
Praenobiliss[imum] D[omi]n[um] D[octo]r[em] Cliffortium et optime valeas!

Dabam festinanter Petropoli ex Horto Medico ad diem 17 Dec[embris] st[yli] v[eteris] {sym-CIC+M}{sym-IC+D}CCXXXVI.

P.S. Libenter ex Te scirem, quaenam sit planta Sceptrum Carolinum flore aureo magno rictu sanguineo[19] in Olai Celsii Catalogo Plantarum circa Upsaliam sponte nascentium, pag. 31,[20] recensita. Scriptores Botanici Sueci, qui forte illam describunt, non ad manus sunt et apud alios ne vestigium quidem de illa herba sub hoc titulo invenio. Si in promtu habeas illius semina, quaedam simul expeto. Forte est ipsa Pedicularis palustris altissima spicata Asplenii foliis Regionum Borealium, cuius iam semina mitto.

[address] A Monsieur / Monsieur C. Linnaeus, / Docteur en Medecine et Botanicien tres celebre a Amsterdam.

upSUMMARY

According to a rumour in the learned world Linnaeus was dead. Johann Georg Siegesbeck has received a letter on 15 December n.s., sent on 22 November 1736 n.s. George Clifford agrees to a botanical interchange. Siegesbeck wants seeds from America, the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon. However, they should not be sent by ship, since he fears that Linnaeus’s Systema naturae, Musa Cliffortiana and Fundamenta botanica have disappeared with the ship carrying them. He looks forward to having all works published by Linnaeus. Siegesbeck’s own Primitiae florae Petropolitanae containing 1260 plants was sent to the academic printing office in August, but reclaimed and sent to be printed in Riga.

Siegesbeck thanks Linnaeus for having named a plant after him. However, the plant is unknown to him. He would like to receive seeds from it.

Campanula serpillifolia (Bauhin), Serpillifolia (Buxbaum), which grows abundantly in the wood land of the Basilian isle in the vicinity of St Petersburg, is now growing in the Garden in St Petersburg. Siegesbeck has treated it under the name of Obularia in his Primitiae florae Petropolitanae, because it looks like Nummularia. It does not belong to the tribe of Campanula. He did not know that Johan Frederik Gronovius already had named it Linnaea.

There are no plants or seeds yet of Trigonella (Dillenius). Betula nova Suecorum or Betula palustris pumila, registered by Olof Celsius the Elder in Plantarum circa Upsaliam sponte nascentium catalogus, is growing naturally in St Petersburg and on the Basilian isle.

Siegesbeck has compared two species of Rhagrostis (in Johann Christian Buxbaum’s Plantarum minus cognitarum centuria tertia, Tab. LV and LVI) with dried specimens of Corispermum (Jussieu) and Corispermum tartaricum maius (inserted in a herbarium collected by the historiographer Johann Gottfried Heinzelmann during his journey to Siberia and other Tartarian regions) and found that they are very much alike. Instead of a dry specimen of Rhagrostis he will send two specimens of Corispermum tartaricum, which belong to a dicot genus.

In a survey of the new genera of the plants, published together with his Catalogus plantarum circa Gissam sponte nascentium (p. 160), Johann Jakob Dillenius says that according to the Mémoires de l’Académie royale des sciences, Corispermum got its name from Jussieu, because its seeds look like bugs. This comparison displeases Siegesbeck. Since an African plant is called Anemonospermos, owing to the fact that its seeds are similiar to those of Anemone, many people think that Corispermum has got its name, because it has seeds similiar to those of Coris.

Linnaeus plans to leave Amsterdam in August and is asked to visit St Petersburg, where he can see a very distinct Veronica spicata, Limonium with big blue flowers, Hedysarum with blue or white flowers and a species of Cotyledon (all of them never described). Linnaeus will also see Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmied’s Catalogus florae Sibericae, in which can be found Calceolus maior with a yellowish and a purple flower and Calceolus minor with a yellowish one.

P.S. Siegesbeck would like a classification of the Sceptrum Carolinum described in Olof Celsius the Elder’s Plantarum circa Upsaliam sponte nascentium catalogus (p. 31). He would be grateful for seeds of it. He wonders if this plant could be Pedicularis palustris altissima spicata with the leaves of Asplenium.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (LS, XIV, 80-82). [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

upTEXTUAL NOTES

a.
MS1 <[illegible]> salutes

upEXPLANATORY NOTES

1.
Linnaeus’s letter has not come down to us. See Johann Georg Siegesbeck to Linnaeus, 14 November 1735 o.s., 25 November 1735 n.s.Letter L0052, n. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
See further Ludwig to Linnaeus, 24 May 1737 n.s.Letter L0171. Cf. Linnaeus’s letter to Ludwig, 28 July 1737 n.s.Letter L0191. See also Ludwig to Linnaeus, 2 January 1738 n.s.Letter L0242 and Ludwig to Linnaeus, 14 January [1740] n.s.Letter L0372.
9.
Linnaea borealis.
Celsius the Elder, Plantarum circa Upsaliam sponte nascentium catalogusCelsius, Olof “Plantarum circa
Upsaliam sponte nascentium catalogus”,
ALSS, 2 (1732), 9-44 [1735].
.
Siegesbeck probably means {img-L0119-c.gif+greek}, Greek for “bug”.
Greek for “seed”.
Linnaeus saw Pedicularis Sceptrum Carolinum for the first time on 24 June 1729 in the parish of Börje, outside Uppsala. It had first been discovered by Olof Rudbeck the YoungerRudbeck, Olof (1660-1740).
Swedish. Professor of medicine,
botanist, ornithologist, travelled in
Lapland. Linnaeus’s teacher.
at Tuggenselet during his tour to Lappland in 1695. On 19 June 1731 his son, Johan Olof RudbeckRudbeck, Johan Olof
(1711-1790). Swedish. Public official.
Son of Olof Rudbeck the Younger.
President of the Bergskollegium.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, defended the thesis Dissertatio botanica de planta Sceptrum CarolinumLinnaeus, Carl Dissertatio
botanica de planta sceptrum Carolinum
dicta sub praesidio Domini Laurentii
Roberg
, resp. J. O. Rudbeck, ed. Th.
M. Fries, Skrifter af Carl von
Linné
, utg. av KVA, IV,
Valda smärre skrifter af
botaniskt innehåll
(1908),
243-256.
(D 67, UUB), which was written by Linnaeus himself. The name Carolinum was given to honour King Karl XIIKarl XII, (1682-1718).
Swedish. Reigned 1697-1718.
. See Gertz, “Olof Celsius d.ä. och Flora UplandicaGertz, O. “Olof Celsius
d.ä. och Flora Uplandica.
Ett blad till Uppsalabotanikens
historia”, SLÅ 3 (1920),
36-56.
, 50, 55, and Almquist, “Linné och Flora UpsaliensisAlmquist, E. “Linné och
Flora Upsaliensis”,
SLÅ 5 (1922), 56-69.
. See also Linnaeus to Johann Philipp BreyneBreyne, Johann Philip
(1680-1764). German/Polish. Zoologist
and physician in Danzig. Son of Jacob
Breyne. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, 16 December 1746 o.s., 27 December 1746 n.s., Bref och skrifvelserLinnaeus, Carl Bref och
skrifvelser af och till Carl von
Linné
. Utgifna och med
upplysande noter försedda af Th. M.
Fries, J. M. Hulth & A. Hj. Uggla.
Afdelning I:1-8, Afdelning II:1-2
(Stockholm 1907-1943).
, II:1, 337).
Celsius the Elder, Plantarum circa Upsaliam sponte nascentium catalogusCelsius, Olof “Plantarum circa
Upsaliam sponte nascentium catalogus”,
ALSS, 2 (1732), 9-44 [1735].
(published in 1735, Acta literaria et scientiarum Sueciae Acta literaria et
scientiarum Sueciae
, 1-4 (Uppsala
1720-1739).
, 1732, II, 9-44). See p. 39.