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Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L0163 • Albrecht von Haller to Carl Linnaeus, 14 April 1737 n.s.
Dated 14 Apr. 1737. Sent from Göttingen (Germany) to (). Written in Latin.

Amicissimo Viro,
Botanico Eximio,
Carolo Linnaeo,[1]
M[edicinae] D[octori] et S[ocio] A[cademiae]I[mperialis] N[aturae] C[uriosorum], [2]
S[alutem] p[lurimam] d[icit]
Alb[ertus] Haller.

Hoc maxime Te nomine adloquor ignotus, ut a primo limine intelligas, quam vanus fuerit rumor et quam falsa narraverit IseliusIselin, Jean-Rodolphe
(1705-1779). Swiss. Professor of law,
historian.
Gronovio.[3] Nulla certe mihi cum Iselio intercedit consuetudo. Audiisse potuit ab amico meo StaehelinoStähelin, Benedikt
(1695-1750). Swiss. Botanist. Studied
under Sébastien Vaillant and
Albrecht von Haller, professor of
physics in Basle.
me Tecum quod ad possibilitatem Systematis ex Sexu dissentire aliquantum.[4] Mihi vero neque Tecum neque cum ullo alio litem unquam movere in animum[a][a] : MS1 <qui> animum venit. Qui scientias vere amant, et eos necessario quodam nexu amant per quos scientiae increscunt. Ita et ego tunc[b][b] : MS1 [added above the line] amantissimus fui Tui, quando Tu de me nondum cogitabas.[c][c] : MS1 <cogitaveras> cogitabas Neque deterrent me a[d][d] : MS1 <in> a [added above
the line
]
justa veneratione Viri bene meriti naevi aliqui aut defectus. Iis enim natura ipsa[e][e] : MS1 <nostra> ipsa [added
above the line
]
obnoxios nos[f][f] : MS1 [added above the line] fecit. Ea ergo omnia, quae Tu liberaliter et sapienter dixisti, eum[g][g] : MS1 <eo> eum tantum habebunt[h][h] : MS1 <erunt> habebunt
[added above the line]
usum[i][i] : MS1 <usu> usum eumque[j][j] : MS1 <eoque> eumque non spernendum,[k][k] : MS1 <spernendo> spernendum ut animum Tuum perspectum habeam. Qui enim in hostem fuisti modestus, ingenuus et ultra provocati hominis justam iram Tui continens, is certe erga amicum plane eris suavissimus, optimus. Vicissim me experieris Tui omniumque bonorum cupidum et[l][l] : MS1 [added above the line] ad omnia officia eo promtiorem, quod non Tibi solum sed toti Rei herbariae me[m][m] : MS1 [added above the line] inservire intelligam, quotiescunque[n][n] : MS1 <quando> quotiescunque
[added above the line]
Tibi usui esse potero.

Hisce praefatis intelligis facile me quaecunque in nostro Commercio, quod mihi gratissimum erit, diversa a Tua sententia dixero,[o][o] : MS1 <dixeram> dixero ea Tecum[p][p] : MS1 <Tibi> Tecum [added
above the line
]
amico intra limites privatae amicitiae mansura publicae luci non destinata. Ita nempe in dissertatione nupera de Systemate Tuo[5] egi, ut neque nomini Tuo detrahere neque sententiam Tuam damnare susceperim, sed ea[q][q] : MS1 <eas> ea tantum enumerare dubia, quae in Praxi novae methodi[6] videntur Tibi obvia futura. Bacciferae certe et unisiliquae BoerhaviiBoerhaave, Herman (1668-1738).
Dutch. Professor of medicine, botany and
chemistry at Leiden. One of the most
influential professors of medicine of
the eighteenth century. Linnaeus visited
him during his stay in Holland.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
pro classe plane haberi nequeunt. Confluunt in iis tetrastemones, pentastemones, hexastemones, &c., Diangiae, triangiae, polyangiae, polycarpae, monopetalae, polypetalae omnis generis. Eas divulsuro obcurrit Solanorum genus nativo quodam saporis, virium medicatarum, &c. vinculo cohaerens, licet capsulis, flore, sexus organis diversum. Id me, quin in synopsi[7] classem ejiciam, retinet, sed plura alias. Hic enim ad Tuas respondere sufficiat, cum in ultima manu imponenda monstri cujusdam descriptioni nunc totus sim.[8]

De Synopsi Helvetica verum dixerunt, qui me cum GesneroGessner, Johannes (1709-1790).
Swiss. Naturalist, Zürich.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
in ea laborare retulerunt.[r][r] : MS1 <dixe-> retulerunt Adcedit Staehelinus plane adsiduus minimarum stirpium scrutator. Ultimam, ut vocant, revisionem nunc incepi et totus sum in fungis, quorum characteres et synonymiae mihi pene inextricabiles videntur. Muscos perfeci sed non sine plurimis dubiis. Paro autem non synopsim solam, sed magnum opus, descriptiones novas et characteres 3 000 indigenarum cum pinace continens proprio et[s][s] : MS1 [added above the line] historia critica, eorum synonymorum, &c. Hunc laborem levem faciet DilleniiDillenius, Johann Jacob
(1684-1747). German/British. Studied at
Giessen. Sherardian professor of botany
at Oxford. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
Phytopinax,[9] quem utinam proxime liceat videre.

Dissertationis[10] meae 13 exemplaria mitto Francofurtum. Ibi ea a Jacobo RenierRenier, Jacob (?-?). German.
Merchant.
, Mercatore in Dönge-Strasse, per quemcunque Tibi notum Batavum mercatorem adcipere poteris instantibus nundinis. Horum sex Boerhaavio, AlbinoAlbinus, Bernhard Siegfried
(1697-1770). German. Professor of
anatomy at Leiden.
, Gronovio, GaubioGaub, Hieronymus David
(1705-1780). German. Physician,
professor of chemistry and medicine at
Leiden.
, Burmanno, RoyenioRoyen, Adriaan van (1705-1779).
Dutch. Professor of botany, director of
the botanical garden of Leiden.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
dabis, reliqua Tibi serva.

Anblatum vere habet quatuor eosque ingentes apices, quibus sagittatim ad capsular[em] nexum inseruntur pedunculi. Qua ratione inter octostemones mihi irrepserit non video, cum adversaria mea plane repugnent. Sed haec cum scripserim, [11] ob mortem amatissimae conjugum[12] exanimis,[t][t] : MS1 [added above the line] facile per moesti animi nebulas alucinatio irrepsit. Vicissim Tua genera,[13] Tuum systema naturae, [14] Tua Musa,[15] Tua Flora,[16] Tua Critica,[17] Tuus hortus Cliffortianus[18] erunt exoptatissima. Nummos Amstelodami Tibi numerari curabo per mercatorem, ni fallor, ReussReuss, (17??-17??). ?.
Merchant.
cognomine. Haec vero per Mercatorem aliquem Batavum mitte, quaeso, ad dictum Renierum, qui simul Tuo mercatori & nummos, si mavis, & mea omnia dabit. Gratissimi erunt Musci etiam Laponici Exoticaeque tam Tuae quam Cliffortianae. Ego vicissim Alpinas stirpes plurimas et ipsas observationes, quae in rem Tuam erunt, et omnia mea sincere offero.

Sexum examinari adtentius et descriptiones adcuratas fieri characteris intimi est quod cum omni Veritatis studioso gaudeam. Et ego ea via incessi, quae sola ad solidam cognitionem ducit, facilior pene quam quae per Praeceptores. Age porro et nos Tuis observatis dita. Humanitatem in nomine Halleriae adgnosco, non meritus. [19] Haec enim praemia satores rei herbariae solos decent.

Nova Tua pergrata fuerunt. LudwigLudwig, Christian Gottlieb
(1709-1773). German. Physician.
Professor of medicine in Leipzig. One of
Linnaeus’s early opponents.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, communis amicus, methodo utitur magis in Germania recepta quam probata sibi, nimis certe nonnaturali et quae unica neque principe parte nititur.[20] SiegesbeckiiSiegesbeck, Johann Georg
(1686-1755). German. Prussian botanist,
doctor of medicine at Wittenberg in
1716, physician and director of the
botanical garden at St Petersburg
1735-1747. One of the most bitter
opponents of Linnaeus’s sexual system.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
opus mihi ignotum. MicheliiMicheli, Pietro Antonio
(1679-1737). Italian. Botanist, curator
of the botanical garden of Florence.
Before Linnaeus the leading authority on
cryptogames.
mortem inopinatam mihi plane illibenter audio. [21] Perindustrius certe, licet rudior literarum, copiosissimas species, subtiles dedit Characteres. Species certe mihi praeripuit innumeras in Jungermanniis, Lichenibus & fungorum adfinibus. Plus hac in classe praestitit quam quicunque alius. Sunt tamen in eo, quae aut non video aut non probo.

Thesaurum Burmannianum,[22] cum de mercatore constiterit, cum aliis quibusdam vetustioribus libris aliquando in Batavia occurrentibus si meos facere volueris, rem ages mihi gratissimam. Ego vicissim stirpes Hercynicas et alias, quaecunque merebuntur, et mineras, si quae Tibi placitaturae sint noverim, Tibi parabo omnes. Ad vicinos enim Bructerum aliosque montes adulta aestate iter instituam.No entry found for note [ u] in L0163.

Haec, dum aliis nimis sum intentus, breviter. Dubia mea indicabo alias. Nunc id solum addam ex Bibliotheca mea quaedam me addere posse Tuae, ut Caroli AvantiiAvanzi, Carlo (?-?). Italian.
Physician and botanist, professor of
medicine at Padua.
notas ad coenam Fieri [sic], Patav[ii] 1649,[23] SeveriniSeverino, Marco Aurelio
(1580-1656). Italian. Naturalist,
professor of anatomy and medicine at
Naples.
lapidem fungimappam ib[idem],[24] editionem MatthioliMattioli, Pietro Andrea Gregorio
(1500-1577). Italian. Physician and
botanist. Born in Siena, graduated at
Padua. Active in Rome, Prague and
Trento. First physician of Maximilian
II.
optimam,[25] Venet[iis] 1565, GesneriGesner, Konrad (1516-1565).
Swiss. Physician, botanist, zoologist,
bibliographer, Lausanne.
vitam[26] cum aliquot iconib[us] a WolfioWolf, Hans Caspar (1532-1601).
?.
,[27] Feuillée, tomum II, cum stirpibus etiam L[igatum], Paris[iis] 1725,[28] ZanichelliZannichelli, Jacopo
(1695-1759). Italian. Botanist.
dell’Ipocastano, Venet[iis] 1733,[29] Gesneri Indicem plantarum quadrilinguem, Tigur[i] 1542,[30] BrukmanBrückmann, Franciscus Ernst
(1697-1753). German. Naturalist and
collector. Physician at Helmstädt,
later at Brunswick and
Wolffenbüttel. Father-in-law of
Friedrich Boerner. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
de Coszodrewine[31] et arbore Limbowe (Pinastro M[icheli]s est),[32] CostaeumCosteo, Giovanni (?-1603).
Italian. Botanist, professor of medicine
at Turin and later at Bologna.
de natura stirpium, Turin[i] 1578,[33] &#134;Rorimone&#134;[v][v] : MS1 [Neumann is added above the
line in another hand
]
Vom opio Caryophyllis aromaticis, Vino, Thea, Coffea, J. R.[x][x] : MS1 [read] R. J. CamerariumCamerarius, Rudolf Jacob
(1665-1721). German. Professor of
medicine, Tübingen.
de Cervaria nigra & Pini conis,[34] et varias alias dissertat[iones] Germanicas, &c., tum totam tractationem de herbariis vivis, methodo ea[y][y] : MS1 [added above the line] condendi, exprimendis figuris ex vivis stirpibus, &c. Eam, ut videtur, Tibi subripuit moles rerum majorum. Verum haec Tibi, et soli, dicta velim, qui Tui et studiosissimus fui et nunc, quando animum Tuum novi, jam ero intentius.

Vale &
me ama!

In Georgia Augusta,[35] quae Goettingae est, die 14No entry found for note [aa] in L0163. Apr[ilis] 1737.

upSUMMARY

There are rumours originating from Jean-Rodolph Iselin that Albrecht von Haller does not entirely agree with Linnaeus’s sexual system.

According to Haller the Bacciferae and Unisiliquae (Boerhaave) cannot constitute a class, because in both of them are found Tetrastemones, Pentastemones, Hexastemones, etc. as well as Diangiae, Triangiae, Polyangiae, Polycarpae, Monopetalae and Polypetalae of all kinds. These in their turn are separated through the class of Solanum.

Haller together with Johannes Gesner is working on a comprehensive study with new descriptions and characters of 3,000 native plants and a critical history of the whole. Johann Jakob Dillenius’s edition of Phytopinax will be of great help.

Haller sends thirteen copies of his dissertation to Frankfurt. Seven are for Linnaeus himself. The others are meant for Herman Boerhaave, Bernhard Siegfried Albinus, Johan Frederik Gronovius, Hieronymus David Gaub, Johannes Burman and Adriaan van Royen.

Anblatum does indeed have four very large apices and the peduncles are inserted in these like arrows at the capsula. Haller cannot understand why Linnaeus placed this plant among the Octostemones.

Haller would like Linnaeus to send him his Genera plantarum, Systema naturae, Musa Cliffortiana, Flora Lapponica, Critica botanica and Hortus Cliffortianus. He would also be grateful for Laplandish mosses and foreign plants from Linnaeus himself or George Clifford. In return Haller will send Alpine plants. He is grateful for Halleria.

Christian Gottlieb Ludwig is using a method based on one part only (not the most important one) and it is not a natural method. Haller does not know of Johann Georg Siegesbeck’s work.

Pietro Antonio Micheli has died unexpectedly. Haller praises Micheli for his great number of species and their precise characters. Micheli has forestalled Haller in many species among the Jungermanniae, the lichenes and the near relations of the Fungi.

Haller would like to have Johannes Burman’s Thesaurus Zeylanicus. Haller adds the titles of some books from his library.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (LS, VI, 149-150). [1] [2]

upEDITIONS

1. A selection (1821), vol. 2, p. 236-241   p.236  p.237  p.238  p.239  p.240  p.241.

upTEXTUAL NOTES

a.
MS1 <qui> animum
a.
MS1 [added above the line]
b.
MS1 [added above the line]
c.
MS1 <cogitaveras> cogitabas
d.
MS1 <in> a [added above the line]
e.
MS1 <nostra> ipsa [added above the line]
f.
MS1 [added above the line]
g.
MS1 <eo> eum
h.
MS1 <erunt> habebunt [added above the line]
i.
MS1 <usu> usum
j.
MS1 <eoque> eumque
k.
MS1 <spernendo> spernendum
l.
MS1 [added above the line]
m.
MS1 [added above the line]
n.
MS1 <quando> quotiescunque [added above the line]
o.
MS1 <dixeram> dixero
p.
MS1 <Tibi> Tecum [added above the line]
q.
MS1 <eas> ea
r.
MS1 <dixe-> retulerunt
s.
MS1 [added above the line]
t.
MS1 [added above the line]
u.
MS1 <substituam> instituam
v.
MS1 [Neumann is added above the line in another hand]
x.
MS1 [read] R. J.
y.
MS1 [added above the line]

upEXPLANATORY NOTES

1.
Rumour had it that the Swiss naturalist Albrecht von Haller, professor at Göttingen, was going to criticise Linnaeus’s sexual system. Linnaeus felt his peace of mind threatened and on 3 April 1737 n.s. he wrote a letter to Haller in order to discourage all kinds of hostility. He emphasised that it was not recommendable neither for Haller nor any other professor to get involved in scientific fights. A professor’s and teacher’s first obligation should be to win his listeners’ confidence. If the students see that their professor is attacked, there will be great loss of respect. Linnaeus will not start a fight, because if he wins or loses does not matter. In either case there will be a mark on his character. Nobody has won a battle without being hurt. For Haller’s relationship with Linnaeus, see Hjelt, “Carl von Linné in seinen Beziehungen zu Albrecht von Haller”Hjelt, O. E. A. Svenska och
finska medicinalverkets historia,
1663-1812
, I-III (Helsinki
1891-1893), I.
.
2.
On 3 October 1736 Linnaeus was elected a member of Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina Naturae Curiosorum. See Schmid & Freund, “Linné und Academia naturae curiosorum”Schmid, Günther & H. Freund
“Linné und Academia Naturae
Curiosorum”, SLÅ 13 (1930),
124-152.
.
3.
See Linnaeus to Haller, 3 April 1737 n.s., where Linnaeus says that there is a rumour that Haller will write something against his new (sexual) method.
4.
In 1734, Haller was elected the first foreign member of the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala. In Holland Linnaeus had read Haller’s inaugural thesis, De methodico studio botanices absque praeceptoreHaller, Albrecht von De
methodico studio botanices absque
praeceptore
(Göttingen 1736).
, which was the start of a long botanical correspondence. Of scientific interest is the discussion about Linnaeus’s sexual system compared to Haller’s natural one, see Linnaeus to Haller, 3 April 1737 n.s..
5.
Haller’s inaugural thesis, De methodico studio botanices absque praeceptoreHaller, Albrecht von De
methodico studio botanices absque
praeceptore
(Göttingen 1736).
.
6.
I.e., Linnaeus’s sexual method.
7.
8.
9.
Johann Jakob Dillenius was planning a new edition of Caspar Bauhin’sBauhin, Caspar (1560-1624).
Swiss. Botanist and physician, Basle.
Bauhin’s Prodromus and Pinax
theatri botanici
(1620, 1623, 1671)
were important works in the field of
botanical nomenclature.
Pinax theatri botaniciBauhin, Caspar Pinax theatri
botanici Caspari Bauhini [...] sive
index in Theophrasti, Dioscoridis,
Plinii et botanicorum qui a seculo
scripserunt opera; plantarum circiter
sex millium ab ipsis exhibitarum nomina
cum earundem synonymiis &
differentiis methodice secundum earum
& genera & species proponens.
Opus XL annorum hactenus non editum
summopere expetitum & ad auctores
intelligendos plurimum faciens

(Basle 1623).
. He was, however, never able to complete his edition. See Eriksson, “The botanical success of Linnaeus”Eriksson, G. “The botanical
success of Linnaeus. The aspect of
organization and publicity”,
SLÅ (1978), 63-65.
.
See Linnaeus to Haller, 3 April 1737 n.s..
Haller was married to Marianne WyssWyss, Marianne (1711-1736).
Swiss. Wife of Albrecht von Haller.
, 1731-1736.
Linnaeus, Musa CliffortianaLinnaeus, Carl Musa
Cliffortiana florens Hartecampi 1736
prope Harlemum
(Leiden 1736).
. See Christian Gottlieb Ludwig to Linnaeus, 17 March 1737 n.s.Letter L0153.
Linnaeus named three plants after Haller, the South-African genus Halleria, which is found in Hortus CliffortianusLinnaeus, Carl Hortus
Cliffortianus, plantas exhibens quas in
hortis tam vivis quam siccis Hartecampi
in Hollandia coluit [...] Georgius
Clifford
(Amsterdam 1737). Soulsby
no. 328.
(see Linnaeus to Haller, 3 April 1737 n.s.) and the species Arabis Halleri and Anemone Halleri, which were, however, later found to be only varieties.
Pietro Antonio Micheli, director of the botanical garden in Florence, died in 1737.
Zannichelli, All’ illustrissimo Signor G. Pontadera [...] lettera [...] intorno alle facoltà dell’ IppocastanoZannichelli, Giovanni Girolamo
All’ illustrissimo Signor G.
Pontadera [...] lettera [...] intorno
alle facoltà dell’
Ippocastano
(Venice 1733).
.
Camerarius, Cervariam nigram et pini conos submittit G. A. CamerariusCamerarius, Rudolf Jacob
Cervariam nigram et pini conos
submittit G. A. Camerarius

(Tübingen 1712).
.
From 1736 to 1753 Haller was professor of anatomy, botany and surgery at Georg Augustus University in Göttingen, inaugurated in 1735.