Documentation

Letters

-Search for letters
-Search in texts

Manuscripts

Editions

Links

Contact

C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L0171 • Christian Gottlieb Ludwig to Carl Linnaeus, 24 May 1737 n.s.
Dated XXIIII Maj. 1737. Sent from Leipzig (Germany) to (). Written in Latin.

VIRO EXCELLENTISSIMO, EXPERIENTISSIMO, DOCTISSIMO,
D[o]m[ino] Carolo Linnaeo,
Med[icinae] Doct[ori] et Soc[ietatis] Nat[urae] Cur[iosorum] Sodali Dignissimo,
Botanico Consummatissimo,
S[alutem] P[lurimam] D[icit]
M[onsieur] Christianus Gottlieb Ludwig, Med[icinae] Bacc[alaureus].

Humanissimas tuas litteras die X Maji scriptas paucis abhinc diebus maximo cum animi oblectamento perlegi.[1] Responsorias igitur exhibeo, licet non egregia habeam tecum communicanda. Concedas, quaeso, vulgaria illa amori, quo te amplector. D[o]m[inus] KesselringKesselting, Johann Heinrich
(1713-1741). German. Professor of
medicine, Königsberg.
tibi forsitan jam jam tradidit definitiones plantarum[2] et litteras satis prolixas. Excuses ea, quae incompta sunt et erronea. Non enim nisi discendi causa scribo. Tu, qui per decem jam annos summo fervore botanica tractasti, monitis tuis erigere poteris eum, qui praecedenti demum anno campum Botanicum intravit, cum caecus alias inter plantas erraverit. Tua in dies certiora evadunt.[a][a] : MS1 <evadant> evadunt Et licet subtiliora fugiam, tamen multa adhuc restant eaque egregia, quae mihi amplam praebent discendi occasionem. Imprimis corollae considerationem magni facio. Non ita tractavit[sic] TournefortiusTournefort de, Joseph Pitton
(1656-1708). French. Botanist and
explorer, professor of botany at Paris.
et RivinusRivinus, August Quirinus
(1652-1723). German. Professor of
medicine and botany at Leipzig.
Constructed a plant classification
system based on petals.
, qui tamen multa in hoc studio perfecerunt. HallerusHaller, Albrecht von
(1708-1777). Swiss. Naturalist and
poet, professor of medicine, botany,
anatomy and surgery at Göttingen
1736-1753. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
quaedam ex tuis vidit ipseque stamina et tubas in methodum inserit. Sed Rajana[3] ipsum quam maxime detinent. Opinor tamen illum ex castris Rajanis discessurum esse quam proxime. Dabit nobis diangiarum ordines et in iisdem tractandis ad stamina et corollam respiciet. Nominum mutationi, quam tu suscepisti, fortassis et ille contradicet. Pudori magis quam honori mihi dico, quod Ludwigiam tuis immiscere velis generibus. Discipulum confundis cum Botanicis perfectioribus contra principia tua in fundamentis botanicis assumpta. Mutes, quaeso, consilium, si fieri potest, donec tempora meliora dabunt.

Hisce nundinis Lipsiensibus cum HeucheroHeucher, Johann Heinrich von
(1677-1747). German. Botanist and
physician, professor of botany at
Wittenberg in 1709, later at Dresden.
Physician-in-ordinary to August II of
Poland-Sachsen.
sermones miscere licuit, Viro, ut nosti, in omni historia naturali versatissimo. Ille, licet ob negotia gravissima de studio amplificando non ut olim meditari possit, tamen amat plantas. Fortassis quaedam dabit de marinis, quod et spero et opto, cum in maxima copia inveniantur in Museo Regio curioso. Et tua conquisivit gratesque tibi persolvit, quod tam egregie de illo sentire volueris in scriptis tuis seque tantis encomiis indignum putat. Non ultima virtus tanti viri est modestia. Multa de illius[b][b] : MS1 <hujus viri> illius
[added above the line]
studiis sperare possent historiae naturalis cultores, nisi et cura principis[4] ipsi tradita, itinera hac de causa suscipienda et alia negotia studiorum ordinem interrumperent.

Floram Lapponicam[5] vidi in Bibliotheca Waltheriana, et talem inveni, ad cujus normam fortassis imposterum Floram Lipsiensem excolere possem. Multa ex nostratibus invenio. Sed addenda erunt varia, quae, si Methodus Riviniana vel emendanda foret, quod sedulo agam, remotis omnibus auctoritatis praejudiciis fortassis ad hujus methodi normam disponi possent. Dubius tamen adhuc haereo, an non in recensionibus plantarum specialioribus ordo alphabeticus sit praeferendus. Requiritur vero tempus, requiruntur repetiti labores. Cum enim alia negotia me detineant, partem tantum botanicis dare possum. In plantis imperfectis, graminibus, muscis, lichenibus, etc. difficilius est negotium. Hospes in his sum et ob variationes insignes subtilitatem characteris scientifici vix perfectam cognitionem spero.

HebenstreitiusHebenstreit, Johann Ernst
(1703-1757). German. Anatomist and
explorer. Professor in Leipzig in 1729.
Travelled in North Africa 1731-1735.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
nihil nunc expetit. Expectat Hortum Cliffortianum.[6] Quo cognito desideria sua tecum communicabit. Si vero WaltheroWalther, Augustin Friederich
(1688-1746). German. Physican and
botanist, professor of anatomy and
surgery at Leipzig.
Melocactum B. II,[7] bulbos Lilio hyacinthi, Dentis canini species quasdam aut alia, quae curiosa invenis et amicis non invidere velles, mittere constituisses, des, quaeso, nuntio publico, si sine impensis assumerentur litteris D[omino] Walthero assignatis, sin vero minus tradas Dom[inis] List[8] et FeylerFeyler, (?-?). German. , qui sine ulteriori incommodo Walthero nostro omnia tradent.

Collegi quasdam accessiones ad Bibliothecam botanicam. Pauca sunt et minoris momenti. Rariora vero invenire nunc non potui. Jam jam omnes inveni libros in Bibliotheca tua, quae[c][c] : MS1 [read] quos BosianusBose, Caspar (1686-1733).
German. Professor of botany at Leipzig.
[d][d] : MS1 <Bosianos> Bosianus et Waltherianus apparatus continent. Et imposterum de colligendis librorum botanicorum titulis sollicitus ero, si nimirum in manus incidant recentiora vel antiquiora scripta.

Permittas, ut adhuc pauca addam de illis, quae in dissectionibus florum inveni. Tua enim diligenter perlustrare soleo, nec aliquid nisi forsitan pauca subtiliora in antherarum figura determinanda praetermitto. Semper hoc monui: Signa tua nimis stricta esse, nec ad omnes species applicari posse, quia, quo magis distinguimus, eo majores difficultates invenire solemus. Dabo quaedam exempla ex tuis:

Non in omni Myosotide est faux clausa. In illa[e][e] : MS1 <[illegible] illa specie,[f][f] : MS1 [added above the line] quae echium amoris dicitur BauhinoBauhin, Caspar (1560-1624).
Swiss. Botanist and physician, Basle.
Bauhin’s Prodromus and Pinax
theatri botanici
(1620, 1623, 1671)
were important works in the field of
botanical nomenclature.
, in individuis variat ut plus simplici[g][g] : MS1 <simplice> simplici vice expertus sum. Faux igitur characterem certum non exhibet. Obiter hic moneo, quod nullam causam praegnantem video, cur Myosotidem distinguamus ab Heliotropio etiam ad tua principia.

Cerasus non semper petala subrotunda sed oblonga etiam habet. Non semper sunt emarginata.

Grossularia spinosa sativa C[aspari] B[auhini] habet stamina eminentia supra petala, et stigmata non sunt reflexa sed erecta, styli in medio villosi.

De Orchidibus et congeneribus dubito adhuc, an stamina insistant pistillo, cum a latere tantum apponantur. Differentia in barba clarior est sed et in radice clarius patet, ad quam tamen tu non attendis. Et ego nollem, nisi omnibus certior esset character.

An non Acer diginia planta dici possit? Fortassis eodem jure quo Grossularia.

Inter Rhinanthum et Pedicularem et incisurae calicis et latitudo segmenti medii barbae distinctionis fundamenta praebent. Ast non sunt certa. Cur non conjungimus cum Tournefortio haec duo genera?

Melianthum T. A. D. F. in generibus[9] non inveni.[10] Floret in hibernaculis nostris frequenter. In hoc didynamiam et tetrandriam inveni plantas. Videas tua variare in summis generibus.

Ad cohaesionem staminum inter se attendis characterem generalem ex illa formans. Sed maxime variat, e.g. Chamaerops habet stamina inferius in unum corpus coalita.

In tetraspermis germen semper dicis quadrifidum. Cum tamen embryones sint separati, cur non dicis germina quatuor?

Petala in Epimedio invenire potui nulla praeter quatuor calicis foliola rubicunda et quatuor coeca, flava, quae tu nectaria appellas.

Vale interim,
Fautor Honoratissime,
de candore meo semper sis certus
meque, ut soles, ama!

Dabam Lipsiae d[ie] XXIIII Maj[i] 1737.

Doctoris in medicina jura proxime expecto. Defendam, ut moris est inter nostros, dissertationem a Walthero Praeside elaboratam de Deglutitione[11] eamque ad te mittam, quam primum occasio se obtulerit.

Musam Cliffortianam[12] omni data opera invenire non potui. Alia omnia prostant. Si igitur in Belgio illam adhuc invenire mihique mittere posses, eximium mihi praestares beneficium. Commoda dabitur forsan imposterum occasio.

Catalogum plantarum Petropolitanum SiegesbeckiiSiegesbeck, Johann Georg
(1686-1755). German. Prussian botanist,
doctor of medicine at Wittenberg in
1716, physician and director of the
botanical garden at St Petersburg
1735-1747. One of the most bitter
opponents of Linnaeus’s sexual system.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
[13] vidi et ille nomina mutavit. Quousque tandem pervenient Botanici, si quilibet recensionem plantarum exhibens nomina mutat? Si quis ad normam methodi illud susceperit, tunc non adeo contradico, sed pro lubitu mutare periculosum mihi videtur.

Maxime desidero, ut me certiorem facias de eo, an tu redux in patriam Lipsiam nostram attingere poteris et quo tempore.

upSUMMARY

Christian Gottlieb Ludwig has received Linnaeus’s letter of 10 May 1737 n.s. Perhaps Johann Heinrich Kesselting now has handed over Ludwig’s Definitiones plantarum. Linnaeus must excuse the many errors, since Ludwig is just a beginner in botany. Having studied Linnaeus, Albrecht von Haller has used the stamens and tubes in his method. But Haller is very busy studying John Ray. Haller will give the order of the Diangiae and use the stamens and corolla as his basis. The changing of names which Linnaeus has undertaken will perhaps also be refuted by Haller. Linnaeus wants to use Ludwigia in his genera. But Ludwig means that Linnaeus confuses the disciple with the more learned botanists contrary to his principles in Fundamenta botanica.

Johann Heinrich von Heucher will perhaps write something about the marine plants.

Ludwig has seen Linnaeus’s Flora Lapponica. Perhaps he himself will write a “Flora Lipsiensis”. If August Quirinus Rivinus’s method is improved, it could be used as a norm. The more peculiar plants should perhaps be listed alphabetically.

Johann Ernst Hebenstreit is waiting for a copy of Linnaeus’s Hortus Cliffortianus. Augustin Friederich Walther would be grateful for Melocactus, bulbs from Lilio-hyacinthus and some species of Dens caninus.

Ludwig is interested in titles of botanical works.

Linnaeus’s signs are too strict and cannot be applied to all species.

There is a discussion of Cerasus, Grossularia spinosa sativa (Bauhin), the Orchides, Acer, Rhinantus, Pedicularis, Melianthus, Chamaerops, Epimedium and the Tetraspermae.

P.S. Ludwig will soon have his privileges as a doctor of medicine. As is customary in Germany he will defend a thesis, De deglutitione, written by the praeses, Walther. Linnaeus will have it as soon as possible.

Ludwig wants to have Musa Cliffortiana.

Ludwig has seen Johann Georg Siegesbeck’s Primitiae florae Petropolitanae, in which there is a changing of names.

Linnaeus is asked when he will come to Leipzig.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (LS, IX, 489-490). [1] [2] [3]

upTEXTUAL NOTES

a.
MS1 <evadant> evadunt
b.
MS1 <hujus viri> illius [added above the line]
c.
MS1 [read] quos
d.
MS1 <Bosianos> Bosianus
e.
MS1 <[illegible] illa
f.
MS1 [added above the line]
g.
MS1 <simplice> simplici

upEXPLANATORY NOTES

1.
See Linnaeus to Ludwig, 10 May 1737 n.s.Letter L0177, n. 1.
2.
3.
4.
Elector Fredrik August II of Saxony.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
See Linnaeus’s letter to Ludwig, 28 July 1737 n.s.Letter L0191, where he promises a new character of Melianthus.
Linnaeus, Musa CliffortianaLinnaeus, Carl Musa
Cliffortiana florens Hartecampi 1736
prope Harlemum
(Leiden 1736).
. This work deals with the banana plant, which blossomed for the first time at Hartecamp in January 1736, according to a letter to Albrecht von HallerHaller, Albrecht von
(1708-1777). Swiss. Naturalist and
poet, professor of medicine, botany,
anatomy and surgery at Göttingen
1736-1753. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, 1 May 1737 n.s.. See Bref och skrifvelserLinnaeus, Carl Bref och
skrifvelser af och till Carl von
Linné
. Utgifna och med
upplysande noter försedda af Th. M.
Fries, J. M. Hulth & A. Hj. Uggla.
Afdelning I:1-8, Afdelning II:1-2
(Stockholm 1907-1943).
, I:4, 352 and n. 2, I:5, 252 and n. 4; Uggla, “Linné och bananen”Uggla, Arvid Hjalmar
“Linné och bananen”,
SLÅ 42 (1959), 79-88.
, and Broberg, “Linnaeus and genesis”Broberg, Gunnar “Linnaeus and
genesis. A preliminary survey”,
SLÅ (1978), 30-42.
, 37.