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Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L0195 • Albrecht von Haller to Carl Linnaeus, 3 July 1737 n.s.
Dated . Sent from Göttingen (Germany) to (). Written in Latin.

Praestanti Viro, Botanico Vero,
Carolo Linnaeo,
A[cademiae] N[aturae] C[uriosorum] Sodali,[1]
S[alutem] p[lurimam] d[icit]
A[lbertus] Haller.

Tua pulcherrima dona, Floram[2] & Genera,[3] paucis ab ultimis meis elapsis diebus adcepi. Musa[4] autem addita fuisse non videtur. Cum omnia Tua maximo pretio hic terrarum vendantur, est quod orem, ut horti Tui Cliffortiani[5] copiam mihi facias. Non autem admittam, ut Tuo cum incommodo sis in me liberalis. Socer meus, D[omi]nus WyssWyss, Samuel (1677-1755).
Swiss. Herr zu Mathod und La Motte,
Albrecht von Haller’s father-in-law, the
father of Marianne Wyss.
Bernensis,[a][a] : MS1 [added above the line] ReussiiReuss, (17??-17??). ?.
Merchant.
Vestratis opera utitur. Ejus ope quod erogaveris licebit restituere. LudwigioLudwig, Christian Gottlieb
(1709-1773). German. Physician.
Professor of medicine in Leipzig. One of
Linnaeus’s early opponents.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, ut[b][b] : MS1 [added above the line] existimo, Tua etiam sunt reddita. Vidistin ejus Characteres?[6] Totus est in nostro BoerhaavioBoerhaave, Herman (1668-1738).
Dutch. Professor of medicine, botany and
chemistry at Leiden. One of the most
influential professors of medicine of
the eighteenth century. Linnaeus visited
him during his stay in Holland.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, optimo Sene et praeceptore meo, sed non in Botanicis, quae tunc temporis neque amabam neque curabam adhuc.

Quae ratio distinguendi biloculares & bicapsulares? Num dicarpas vis? Eae omnino distinctae initium debent facere multisiliquarum. Sed ego diverso, si potuero, ordine me expediam, qui naturam sequi potius quam classes constituere promittat adfinitates quaerens stirpium non dichotomias, quae plerumque vim inferunt naturali generi. Videtur semper id animo Tuo haerere me in Tuam Methodum animadversurum, sed injuste mecum agis. Ego quidem meas cogitationes proferam sine ullius offensione. Refutare, si vel maxime possem, nollem certe ne alium quidem Te omnium mortalium[c][c] : MS1 [added above the line] minime. Cohaerebunt, ni fallor, Capitatae cum discoideis[d][d] : MS1 [added above the line] per Carlinas, Xeranthema;[d][d] : MS1 [added above the line] hae cum Radiatis per bidentes. Radiatae cum Cichoraceis; hae cum Scabiosis. Istae cum Verbena & Menthis. Inde ad Gymnotetraspermas fiet iter Verticillatas. Ducent istae ad didynamias Tuas, non exclusa Pinguicula, paulatim per polygalas ad papilionaceas ibitur. Sed nondum rem animo peregi. Occurrit me in Polygalis monadelphiam octo staminum tantum reperire, itidemque in Chamaebuxo, quem barba integra a fimbriato labello Polygalae videtur removere. De Belladonna haereo. Occurrit naturalis classis solanorum an divellenda? In Methodo dichotomias debemus observare adcurate, ne definitio non congruat definito. Excludo ergo in methodo Lychnides triangias, &c. in ordine non item. Illa tyronibus tradit notas certas. Hic autem analogias quaerit occultamque naturae catenam. Adeo et Tecum & cum Tuis adversariis consentio.

De rosaceis non sum meditatus. Bulbosas certe cum Polygonato, Lilioconvallium et subsequente Aro, &c. atque Orchideis, cum his Orobanchen & hypopityn relinquam. Umbelliferae naturalis sunt classis. Sunt & Gymnopolyspermae fere omnes, post quas ex Thalictro iter fit ad Christophorianas, Glaucium, Papaver, Ulmarias etiam, &c. Sic[e][e] : MS1 <sed> Sic seda vicina erunt saxifragis (eas recte jungis cum Geis). Salicaria ob varias rationes haud longe distabit ab Agrimonia neque a Chamaenerio ob communem classem staminum ad petala duplorum.

Quod in Marsilea, Marchantia, Musco, Equiseto, Clathroide vidi, id omne sperma est masculum. Partes feminae in Marchantia, Marsilea, Lunularia, Muscis paucis conspicuae sunt, obscurae in plerisque. Omnes hae plantae antheras habent ex filamento factas, quod utrinque spermatis globulos adnexos habet. In[f][f] : MS1 <si> In Clathroide & omni adfinium genere solent annulares esse. Non potest, quin subinde obcurrat MuntingiusMunting, Abraham (1626-1683).
Dutch. Botanist and horticulturist,
professor of medicine at Groningen
1658-1683.
Batava lingua,[7] Flora HermanniHermann, Paul (1646-1695).
German. Botanist, physician at Batavia,
professor of botany at Leiden.
utraque,[8] CaesalpinusCesalpino, Andrea (1519-1603).
Italian. Botanist, professor of medicine
and botany in Pisa and Rome and
physician of Clement VIII. Best known
for his De plantis libri xvi
(1583).
de plantis[9] &c., FeldmanniFeldmann, Bernard (1701-1777).
German. Physician, botanist. Studied at
Leiden. Personal physician of Frederick
the Great.
, RoyeniRoyen, Adriaan van (1705-1779).
Dutch. Professor of botany, director of
the botanical garden of Leiden.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, GronoviiGronovius, Johan Frederik
(1690-1762). Dutch. Naturalist, senator
of Leiden. Linnaeus’s benefactor and
friend. Published Flora Virginica
(1743, 1762) together with John Clayton.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, BreyniiBreyne, Johann Philip
(1680-1764). German/Polish. Zoologist
and physician in Danzig. Son of Jacob
Breyne. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
diss[ertationes] inaug[urales], &c. Eos si aequo pretio adquirere poteris, ego vicissim omnia, quae potero, conabor in gratiam Tuam facere.

De Bacciferis sententia est solum narcoticum solanorum genus relinquere, expungere reliquas.

De -oides certum est excedi. Sed in methodo vox non est incommoda magis signans quam nomen proprium aut aliqua ex vaga antiquitate vox. In Ordine naturae admitti nequit. Omnes enim stirpes aeque antiquae sunt neque una est regula alterius.[10] In alsines genere res ad ridiculum est deducta. Verum nostro aevo genera condere solent homines, prius quam Characteres [g][g] : MS1 [added above the line] eorumque vim[g][g] : MS1 [added above the line] satis possideant. D[ominus] MoehringMoehring, Paul Heinrich Gerhard
(1710-1792). German. East Frisian
ornithologist, practising physician at
Jever (Oldenburg). Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
Jeverae Hortum condit. Misit Catalogum. Facit 6 nova genera. Fagopyra scandentia dipetala ait cum calyce triphyllo. Asphodelus palustris nova est stirps Frisica. Hyacinthos umbellatos hyacinthi butomos vocat. Arnicama[h][h] : MS1 [read] Arnicam Doronico ob eamdem rationem separat, ob quam eam[i][i] : MS1 [added above the line] ad[j][j] : MS1 <id> ad solidagines retulit Vaill[antius]Vaillant, Sébastien
(1669-1722). French. Botanist and
surgeon. Professor at the Jardin des
plantes. His theory on plant sexuality
influenced Linnaeus who regarded
Vaillant as one of the most important
botanists.
.

Convolvuloides aut aliquid simile in Ordine naturae annon tolerabile? In methodo non item! Gratissima erit Tua critica.[11] Ego nuper elaboravi Diangias. Dissentio a Tua elegantissima flora in quibusdam. Saxifragia [sic] alba petraea[12] C[aspari] B[auhini]Bauhin, Caspar (1560-1624).
Swiss. Botanist and physician, Basle.
Bauhin’s Prodromus and Pinax
theatri botanici
(1620, 1623, 1671)
were important works in the field of
botanical nomenclature.
non est sedum tridactylites tectorum. Folia habet saepe quinquefida [k][k] : MS1 [added above the line] lobis retrojectis,[k][k] : MS1 [added above the line] quae vix in hoc observare licet. Major est, licet Alpina, neque indigena Helvetiae. Descripsi ex horto sicco C[aspari] B[auhini]. Veronica Alpina frutescens (Clus[ii])Lecluse, Charles de
(1525-1609). French. Botanist, director
of the imperial gardens in Vienna,
professor at Leiden.
, Veronica petraea sempervirens & Veronica Alpina Bellidis folio hirsuta tres sunt distinctae Veronicae, quas junxisse videris figuramque dare petraeae sempervirentis.[13] Pediculares excepta flava cum Tuis conciliare non possum. Et Odontites ab Euphrasia vere distincta videtur et Teucrium alp[inum] inodorum potius melampyrum quam Euphrasia, quam (ob factam hyeme descriptionem & male apud Auctores adsignatum melampyro labium inferius integrum) habui pro nova genere. Melampyri speciem eam non genere sed specie novam arbitror. Floris exiguitas in stirpe, quae vulgari non est humilior, color intensior, &c. eam distinguunt. Liceat hic in Epistolis dissentire, publice vel modestissime vel, quod praestiterit, nunquam. Possemne habere tuam silenem no 185, ni forte Lychnis quaedam mea in synopsi[14] sit spuria nova? Sed & aliae siccae exoticae longeque magis Alpinae & salices, &c. pergratae essent, nisi exhaustus sis, uti pene[l][l] : MS1 [added above the line] sum & ego datis de meis 10 & ultra fasciculis ad varios.

Occasione Silenes occurrit stamina quidem et Nectaria mihi in characteribus valde placere (licet in systemate naturae bulbosas, Alsines, Roresmarinos, &c. distinguere ob stamina 3 s[ive] 2 nolim). Tubas autem videri valde ambiguam notam, cum vix detur distinguere Tubam tribus apicibus notatam a trifida, vix trifidam a tribus, bifidam sive hamatam (quae familiaris didynamiis) a simplici. Sed hae diversitates Classes integras conficiunt. Tuba Rosae, Sambuci, &c. an una an plures, potest cuivis sed magis tyroni obscurum esse.

Novas species non amo. Meas gaudio quodam prolatas damnabo plerasque Orchides, duas Veronicas, duas Saxifragas in Comm[ercio] Lit[terario][15] descriptam [sic]. Androsace vero nova est. Puto me[m][m] : MS1 [added above the line] et aliam novam possidere, quae et a Diapensia Tua & a multiflora villosa[16] differat. Xeranthemum novum est. Puto & Melampyrum luteo & parvo flore[17] & Astragalum.[18] Occurrunt autem infinitae varietates in T[ournefortio]Tournefort de, Joseph Pitton
(1656-1708). French. Botanist and
explorer, professor of botany at Paris.
tum in recentioribus LoeselioLoeselius, Johannes
(1607-1655). German. Botanist and
physician. Professor of medicine in
Königsberg 1639-1655.
, HelwingioHelwing, Georg Andreas
(1668-1748). German. Clergyman,
Angerburg (Prussia).
, RuppioRuppe, Heinrich Bernhard
(1688-1719). German. Student of
medicine, botanist, author of the
Flora Jenensis (1718).
, &c. Ego vero v[erbi] g[ratia] magnitudinem solam nunquam speciem facere autumo; colorem rarissime, nisi sit luteus. Solet in veris differentiis conplexus quidam partium diversitatem reddere faciliorem. Trollium examinabo. Ad Nectaria non respexi. Flos populaginis est & siliqua.

Aphyllanthes exemplaria manca sunt. Tribuloide careo et salicornia. Solum enim fere in nostris indigenis laborem omnem posui. Praxi et Anatomae tunc etiam intentus non ut Tu castus florae sacerdos. Botanicen semper renitentibus omnibus colui ab a[nn]o 1728, quo vastum per Alpes 200 leucarum iter pedes feci. Ab eo tempore decies adhuc Alpes peragravi. Sed myops, quod noxium maxime est vitium. In Muscis, &c. plurimum laboravi. Spero me plurima expediturum, licet multa dubia supersint. Renitebantur amici cognati, sed nunc non paenitet. Paenitet autem, quod non plus in iis consumserim ocii. Synopsin aut hac hyeme aut vere instante edam sine iconibus. Mole fere dupla Tuae Laponiae erit stirpium inter 2 500 & 3 000. Sed plurimae supersunt sine dubio mihi non visae in Valle Tellina, Rhaetiis, Valesia ipsoque pago Aventico, qui foecundus omnino & coeli temperie vix Aquitaniae cedit. Sed non potui nisi furtim & raptim iter facere.

Verum dudum garrio.
Vale et fave!

Dabam Goettingae d[ie] 3 Julii 1737.

Ecce novos libros pro Bibliotheca Tua.[19] ZanichelliZannichelli, Jacopo
(1695-1759). Italian. Botanist.
icones sunt 311, sed passim malae et superficiariae.

TheophrastiTheophrastus, (374 BC-287 BC).
Greek. philosopher and naturalist.
sparsae de plantis sententiae per Caesarem Adonum. Bonon. 1561. 4.[20]

CampiCampi, Baldassare (?-c.1653).
Italian. Botanist, Lucca. Published
botanical works together with his
brother Michele.
(visus Hanoverae) spicilegio botanico overo dialago di Baldasar e Michele Campi nel quale si manifesta lo sconosciuto Cinnamomo degli Antichi. Lucca 1654.[21]

GesneriGesner, Konrad (1516-1565).
Swiss. Physician, botanist, zoologist,
bibliographer, Lausanne.
historiam plant. 1541 possideo. Rhapsodia ex Paulo, Theophrasto, Dioscoride, etc.[22]

BurkhardBurckard, Johann Heinrich
(1676-1738). German. Botanist.
(Joh. Henr.) de methodo plantarum non ad unam partem adstingenda, Epist. ad Leibniz. Wolfenb. 1702.[23]

Dominici VignaeVigna, Dominico (17th century).
Italian. Botanist, professor of botany
at Pisa.
anim. in l. de historia & de causis plantar. Pisis 1625.4.[24]

Petri CastelliCastelli, Pietro (1575-1657).
Italian. Physician, professor of botany
at Rome, founded a botanical garden at
Messina.
an smilax aspera sit sarsaparilla [sic] Americ. Messan. 1652.[25]

Leonh. UrsiniUrsin, Leonhard (1618-1664).
German. Professor of botany in 1652, and
of physiology in 1656, at Leipzig.
Rosa menstrua. Lips. 1662.[26]

PfauzPfauz, Johann (1622-1674).
German. Botanist.
descriptio graminis medici plenior. Ulm. 1656.[27]

SchelhammerSchelhammer, Günther Christoph
(1649-1716). German. Professor of
botany at Helmstädt, later in
anatomy, surgery and botany at Jena.
, catal. plant. horti domestici. Helmstad. 1683.[28]

P. BorelliBorel, Pierre (1620?-1689).
French. Botanist and physician, doctor
of medicine at Montpellier in 1640.
hortus simplicium. Paris. 1669. 8.[29]

Theod. SchoonSchoon, Theodorus (?-?). ?. , Waare ont leeding en de oeffening van den planten. ’s Gravenhage 1692.[30]

Martin. Mylii hortus philosophicus. Goerliz. 1597.[31]

upSUMMARY

Having received Linnaeus’s Flora Lapponica and Genera plantarum, Albrecht von Haller would also like to have Musa Cliffortiana and Hortus Cliffortianus. Christian Gottlieb Ludwig’s characters are not based on Herman Boerhaave.

Haller wonders how the stirpes Biloculares can be distinguished from the Bicapsulares and if they could be called Dicarpae. These are entirely distinct and ought to make the beginning of the Multisiliquae. He is not going to attack Linnaeus’s system but only proposes his own theories. He states that the Capitatae are connected with the Discoideae by means of Carlina and Xeranthemum and the Discoideae with the Radiatae through Bidens, etc. The Radiatae are allied to the Cichoraceae and these to the Scabiosae, which are next akin to Verbena and Mentha, and thus we come to the Verticillatae with four naked seeds. These lead us to the rest of Linnaeus’s class Didynamia, not excepting Pinguicula, and we gradually proceed through Polygala to the Papilionaceae. He is in doubt regarding Belladonna.

Haller has not yet attended to the Rosae. He should certainly leave Bulbosae with Polygonatum and Lilioconvallium, next to which follow Arum and its allies. Then there are the Orchides and next Orobanche and Hypopitys. The Umbelliferae constitute a natural class. So do almost all the Gymnopolyspermae, from which Thalictrum leads us to Christophoriana, Glaucium, Papaver and even Ulmaria. So Sedum will come near to Saxifraga. Salicaria will be found neither widely separated from Agrimonia nor from Chamaenerium, because the stamens are double the number of the petals.

Haller has to date only seen masculine seed in Marsilea, Marchantia, Muscus, Equisetum and Clathroides. The female parts are conspicuous in Marchantia, Marsilea, Lunularia and a few of the Mosses, but obscure in most. He would like to have Abraham Munting in Dutch, the two floras by Paul Hermann, Andrea Cesalpino’s De plantis and the inaugural dissertations of Bernhard Feldmann, Adriaan van Royen, Johan Frederik Gronovius, Johann Philipp Breyne, etc.

Regarding the Bacciferae he intends to retain the narcotic genus of Solanum and exclude the rest.

The termination -oides is not inconvenient in a method, but it cannot be admitted in a natural order. All plants are of equal date, nor is one to be the rule of another. People establish genera before they have the characters and medical power. Paul Heinrich Gerhard Moehring has sent his catalogue. He has made six new genera. Moehring says that Fagopyrum scandens has two petals and a three-leaved calyx. Asphodelus palustris he says is a new plant of Friesland. He applies the name of Hyacintho-butomus to the umbellate hyacinth. He separates Arnica from Doronicum for the same reason as Sébastien Vaillant referred it to Solidago.

Linnaeus’s Critica botanica will be most welcome. Haller has just finished the Diangiae. He differs in a few points from Flora Lapponica. Saxifraga alba petraea is not Sedum tridactylites tectorum (Bauhin). Veronica alpina frutescens (Lecluse), Veronica petraea sempervirens and Veronica alpina bellidis folio hirsuta are three distinct plants. He cannot reconcile any of his Pediculares except the flava with those of Linnaeus. Odontites seems really distinct from Euphrasia. Teucrium alpinum inodorum is rather a Melampyrum than an Euphrasia. He would like to have Linnaeus’s Silene no. 185 and other dried specimens of exotic and Alpine plants.

Regarding Silene Haller is pleased with the thought of admitting the stamens and nectaries into their characters, although in a natural system he will not separate Bulbosae, the Alsines, the Roresmarini, etc. on account of their three or two stamens.

Haller is not fond of new species. He now wants to condemn some of his own: several Orchides, two Veronicae and two Saxifragae described in Commercium litterarium. However, Androsace, Xeranthemum, Melampyrum with a small yellow flower and Astragalus are new. There are an infinite number of varieties in Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Johannes Loeselius, Georg Andreas Helwing, Heinrich Bernhard Ruppe and others. Difference of size alone can never make a species and difference of colour very rarely, unless it be yellow. He will examine Trollius.

Haller’s specimens of Aphyllanthes are imperfect. He would like to have Tribuloides and Salicornia.

Haller’s “Synopsis” will contain 2,500 to 3,000 plants.

There are 311 bad and superficial illustrations by Giovanni Giacobbe Zannichelli. There follows a list of new books for Linnaeus.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (LS, VI, 153-156). [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

upEDITIONS

1. A selection (1821), vol. 2, p. 260-269   p.260  p.261  p.262  p.263  p.264  p.265  p.266  p.267  p.268  p.269.

upTEXTUAL NOTES

a.
MS1 [added above the line]
b.
MS1 [added above the line]
c.
MS1 [added above the line]
d.
MS1 [added above the line]
e.
MS1 <sed> Sic
f.
MS1 <si> In
g.
MS1 [added above the line]
h.
MS1 [read] Arnicam
i.
MS1 [added above the line]
j.
MS1 <id> ad
k.
MS1 [added above the line]
l.
MS1 [added above the line]
m.
MS1 [added above the line]

upEXPLANATORY NOTES

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
See Linnaeus to Haller, 8 June 1737 n.s., where he says that the termination -oides displeases him because it is the asylum of ignorance.
Haller is wrong here. The plant of Linnaeus is Veronica alpina (Smith, A selectionSmith, James Edward A
selection of the correspondence of
Linnaeus and other naturalists, from the
original manuscripts
(London 1821).
, II, 265), see Linnaeus, Species plantarumLinnaeus, Carl Species
plantarum
(Stockholm 1762-1763).
Soulsby no. 500.
(1762), I, 15.
Androsace villosa (Smith, A selectionSmith, James Edward A
selection of the correspondence of
Linnaeus and other naturalists, from the
original manuscripts
(London 1821).
, II, 266), see Linnaeus, Spec. pl. (1762), I, 204.