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C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L0216 • Carl Linnaeus to Albrecht von Haller, 8 October 1737 n.s.
Dated 1737 Octob. 8.. Sent from Amsterdam (Netherlands) to Göttingen (Germany). Written in Latin.

Hac ipsa vespera Tuas litteras accepi, qui cras abeundus sum. Debuissem ante duos menses petiisse Sueciam, me autem detinuit Dominus CliffordClifford, George (1685-1760).
Dutch. Banker and merchant in Amsterdam,
Linnaeus’s benefactor. Owner of
Hartecamp and its botanical garden
outside Haarlem. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
in hunc diem. Utinam modo possem absolvere Lugdunum, ubi amici student me detinere per aliquod tempus! Ni vero nimis detinear, Te videbo Goettingae, si Tuo commodo fiat. Vellem a Te addiscere aliquid in Muscis, quam gratiam mihi non negabis spero.

Sanguinem meum movit Tua epistola, in qua putas me ex studio inimica mente contra Te scribere. Testor omnipotentem Deum, me nullum Botanicum majori in pretio, honore et amore habere quam Te! Sentias itaque non de me male! Videbaris mihi liber. Sperabam Te a me excipere posse, utpote a Tuo, quidquid festinans proferret calamus, tum temporis laboribus obrutus. Excerpsi ex Tuis generibus nomina, circa quae dissentiisti [sic] a me, non ut Te reprehenderem, sed ut certior fierem, et in tempore me corrigerem.

Doleo, quod malam mentem explicasti, quae de Unifolio scripsi, qui tamen nunquam scripsi, ut ita verba mea interpretari posses, quod Tu a me vel ego a Te hoc habuerim. Quae scripsi, ideo scripsi, cum DilleniusDillenius, Johann Jacob
(1684-1747). German/British. Studied at
Giessen. Sherardian professor of botany
at Oxford. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, dum apud eum eram, tam absolute haec negabat, et Tu eodem tempore haec observasti. Noli male de me sentire, qui malevolus certe non sum, et si vel forem erga omnes, certe erga Te non.

Si inclusa, quam misisti, planta sit Androsace, cuius Synonyma addidi Diapensiae, me pessime hallucinatum fuisse fateor, veniamque expeto, et ut haec revoces palliativa manu exoro. Certe inclusa Androsace est, et mea Diapensia tam nova planta, quam mitto inclusam.

Solana sunt bilocularia, licet saepe variant, uti Lycopersicon, sed bilocularia certo respectu. Membrana enim loculamenta non distinguit, sed sola pulpa. Est enim duplex seminum receptaculum reniforme, quod convexum accrescit, intumescit, augetur.

Agrimoniam certe non distinguas ab Icosandriae polygyniae plantis. Confer partes et analogiam, et videbis calycem coloratum, ut in Rosis.

Doleo, quod, quae de VaillantioVaillant, Sébastien
(1669-1722). French. Botanist and
surgeon. Professor at the Jardin des
plantes. His theory on plant sexuality
influenced Linnaeus who regarded
Vaillant as one of the most important
botanists.
scripsi, Tu in Te trahere voluisti, qui vix verbum Tuum vidi contra Vaillantium, sed dolui, quod Dillenius adeo ipsi infestus esset post fata.

De Marsileae anthera non dubitavi, ut Tu sumis, sed uti Michelius partes sumserit.

Tempus mihi plura non permittit. Unice oro, rejicias a Tua mente omnia, quae in ultima epistola Te offenderunt. Continues, quaeso, solito candore. Numquam habebis apud me causam irae; me amabis, dum me praesentem videas meumque animum. Quanti ego Te fecerim, vel me absente coram Te declarabunt vel quidem mihi inimici. Doleo maxime, quod a me laesus fuerit Tuus in me generosus animus, culpam deploro, veniam precor! Spero Te hisce satisfactum, quod si his et amicus ut antea.

Corollarium meum impressum est, quod jam depono apud D[ominum] RuysRuys, (?-?). Dutch. cum Methodo Sexuali, qui ut habeas haec curabit.[1] Hortum Cliffortianum habebis, quam primum tabulae incisae sunt.[2] Vellem audire Tuum judicium de generibus meis foliorum in Horto Cliffortiano.

StaeheliniStähelin, Benedikt
(1695-1750). Swiss. Botanist. Studied
under Sébastien Vaillant and
Albrecht von Haller, professor of
physics in Basle.
justa merita non excidant e mente mea, antequam jussu Tuo parens fui.

Hura jam floret in Horto Cliffortiano. Ego crederem, quod Orchides, etc. magis affines essent Cannae, Kaempferiae, Marantae, Amomis quam Liliaceis, et hae Musis, et Musa palmis, triloculares non sunt. Inspicias situm antherae in Cannis, petalorum in Kaempferia. Kaempferiam et Cannam esse maxime affines vix ullus negabit.

Quae mittis gratissima erant, sed, quaeso, non calculum instituas. Ego scio, quid Tibi debeo, licet plantas Lapponicas Alpinas ante reditum in patriam mittere nequeam. Mea omnia opuscula sunt parva, et qualia exsulis vel peregrinatoris esse solent, qui omnia secum portare debet. Nuper reperi duas species Cliffortiae feminas, Clutiam feminam, variaque alia genera. Audivi, quod et SiegesbeckiiSiegesbeck, Johann Georg
(1686-1755). German. Prussian botanist,
doctor of medicine at Wittenberg in
1716, physician and director of the
botanical garden at St Petersburg
1735-1747. One of the most bitter
opponents of Linnaeus’s sexual system.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
Hortus Petropolitanus[3] et GerberiGerber, Traugott (1710-1743).
German. Medical doctor, botanist,
director of the oldest botanical garden
in Moscow..
Flora Moschoviensis prodierint.[4] Doleo me hanc nullam adhuc vidisse.

Asphodeliris adeoque est meum Anthericum, cuius tertiam speciem e Virginea dedi in Horto Cliffortiano.

GronoviusGronovius, Johan Frederik
(1690-1762). Dutch. Naturalist, senator
of Leiden. Linnaeus’s benefactor and
friend. Published Flora Virginica
(1743, 1762) together with John Clayton.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
sine dubio edet propediem plantas a ClaytonoClayton, John (1685-1773).
British/American. Physician and
botanist. Born i England, moved to
Virginia in North America in 1715. His
herbarium collected in Virginia was
published by Johan Frederik Gronovius
and Linnaeus in Flora Virginica
(1739, 1743). Correspondent of Linnaeus.
e Virginia missas, ni nimis diu deliberet.[5] BartschiusBartsch, Johann (1708-1738).
German. Naturalist, travelled to
Surinam. Assisted Linnaeus with the
publication of Flora Lapponica.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
jam petiit Surinamam. Si vixerit, Floram praestabit acuratissimam, et ad me mittet plantas omnes certus sum, cum a me habuit istud officium.[6] Adriaan van RoyenRoyen, Adriaan van (1705-1779).
Dutch. Professor of botany, director of
the botanical garden of Leiden.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
jam incipit elaborare Novum Hortum Lugduno Batavum, qui et systematice agat.[7]

Si mineras habeas in superfluo, erunt gratissima Domino Cliffortio, sed certe non opus est, quod des rariores. Possis alia vice, cum lapides in duplo obtineas, viliores dare. Ille enim Tibi debet librum pro tot communicatis raris ultima vice, quae maxima ex parte permansere in eius museo; et si ille non daret, a me haberes.

In descriptione Uvae Ursi ego erravi, dum folia opposita pro alternis scripsi.

Plantas aliquot Alpinas Lapponicas mitto, plures dum in Sueciam pervenero. Vale!

Amstelodami, 1737 Octob[ris] 8.

upSUMMARY

Linnaeus received Albrecht von Haller’s letter when he was about to leave Amsterdam. He should have gone to Sweden two months ago, but George Clifford has kept him uptil now.

He hopes that he will not be kept in Leiden too long, but will be able to meet Haller in Göttingen and learn something about mosses.

Linnaeus assures Haller that he has no intention of writing against him. He has picked out names from Haller’s genera different from his own, not to criticise but to improve himself.

Linnaeus is sorry that Haller disliked what he wrote about the Unifolium. He wrote what he did owing to his conversation with Johann Jakob Dillenius. Linnaeus would never be malevolent towards Haller.

If the plant Haller sent is the Androsace, which Linnaeus made a synonym of his Diapensia, he confesses that he has made a mistake. It is certainly the Androsace and Linnaeus’s Diapensia is a new plant and is sent enclosed to Haller.

The Solanum is bilocular although it varies as the Lycopersicon. The membrane does not separate the cells, but only the pulp. There is a double kidney-shaped receptacle of the seeds, which grows convex, expanding and enlarging.

Haller must not separate Agrimonia from the plants of Icosandria Polygynia. Linnaeus wants Haller to consider its parts and the analogy and notice the coloured calyx as in the roses.

He is sorry for what he wrote about Sébastien Vaillant. He had not seen a word of Haller’s against Vaillant and he is sorry about Dillenius’s posthumous hostility.

Linnaeus does not doubt Haller’s description of the anthers of Marsilea, only Pietro Micheli’s version.

He wishes that Haller will forget the things that might have offended him and regard him as his friend and asks to be forgiven.

Linnaeus’s Corollarium is printed and he left it together with his Methodus Sexualis to Ruys, who will send them to Haller. Haller will soon have Linnaeus’s Hortus Cliffortianus. He wants Haller’s opinion on the classification on the different kinds of the leaves.

He has not forgotten Benedikt Staehelin’s merits.

The Hura is now flowering in Clifford’s garden. Linnaeus thought that the Orchides were more related to Canna, Kaempferia, Maranta and Amomum than to the Liliaceae, and the Liliaceae to the Musa and the Musa to the Palms, since the Orchides are not trilocular. Linnaeus wants Haller to examine the anthers of Canna, the petals of Kaempferia. Hardly anyone will deny that those two are closely related.

He cannot send any Alpine plants from Lapland before he comes to Sweden and his publications are of a small size due to his exile and travelling. He has recently found two female species of Cliffortia, a female Clutia and other genera. He heard that Johann Georg Siegesbeck’s Primitiae florae Petropolitanae and Traugott Gerber’s ”Flora Moschoviensis” are published.

Asphodeliris is Linnaeus’s Anthericum, of which he gave a third species from Virginia in Hortus Cliffortianus.

Johan Frederik Gronovius will probably publish his work on plants sent by John Clayton from Virginia. Johann Bartsch has gone to Surinam and he will publish an accurate Flora and send Linnaeus some plants.

Clifford would be grateful to have some minerals from Haller, but he does not have to send the rarer ones, only if he has any duplicates. Clifford owes Haller a book for all the rare plants he sent. They are now kept in his library.

Linnaeus made a mistake in Uva Ursi, when he wrote that the leaves are opposite instead of alternate.

He sends some Alpine Lapland plants and will send more when he comes to Sweden.

upEDITIONS

1. Epistolarum ab eruditis viris ad Alb. Hallerum scriptarum I-VI (1773), vol. 1
2. Collectio epistolarum (1792), p. 28-31 .
3. A selection (1821), vol. 2, p. 297-301   p.297  p.298  p.299  p.300  p.301.
4. Vie de Linné (1832), vol. 2, p. 92- .

upEXPLANATORY NOTES

1.
2.
3.
4.
In 1732 Traugott Gerber and Johann Gottfried HeinzelmannHeinzelmann, Johann Gottfried
(?-?). German. Botanist. Travelled in
eastern Russia.
were sent to eastern Russia by Empress Anna for botanical research, of which nothing is published. However, Linnaeus got transcripts of Gerber’s and Heinzelmann’s manuscripts through Count Sten Carl BielkeBielke, Sten Carl (1709-1753).
Swedish. Baron, government official,
patron of science, and naturalist. One
of the founders of the Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences. Private pupil of
Linnaeus. Close friend of Pehr Kalm,
whose voyage to America he supported
financially. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, who in 1744 made a journey to Russia. These are now preserved in the L.S. (see Heinzelmann, “Catalogus plantarum”Heinzelmann, Johann Gottfried
“Catalogus plantarum” (manuscript;
L.S.).
, Heinzelmann, “Flora Tartarica Oreburgensis”Heinzelmann, Johann Gottfried
“Flora Tartarica Oreburgensis”
(manuscript; L.S.).
, Gerber & Heinzelmann, “Flora Samarcensis Tatarica”Gerber, Traugott & Johann
Gottfried Heinzelmann
“Flora
Samarcensis Tatarica” (manuscript;
L.S.).
, Gerber, “Flora Wolgensis et herbarii vivi ibi collecti index”Gerber, Traugott “Flora
Wolgensis et herbarii vivi ibi collecti
index” (manuscript; L.S.).
. See Karamyschew, Karamyschew, Dissertatio academica demonstrans necessitatem promovendae historiae naturalis in RossiaGerber, Traugott , 13-14 (Uppsala 1766), a thesis written by Linnaeus (Bref och skrifvelserGerber, Traugott , I:2, 32). See also Bielke’s letter, 17 February 1744 o.s.Letter L0536 to Linnaeus (Bref och skrifvelserGerber, Traugott , I:3, 187-189).
5.
6.
Johann Bartsch died in 1738.
7.