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Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L0237 • Carl Linnaeus to Albrecht von Haller, 3 January 1738 n.s.
Dated 1738. jan. 3.. Sent from Leiden (Netherlands) to GŲttingen (Germany). Written in Latin.

Viro illustri,
D[omino] D[octori] Alberto Hallero,
Professori Gottingensium Celeberrimo
Soc[io] Ac[ademiae] Reg[iae] Scient[iarum] Svec[iae],[1]
Botanico Consumatissimo,
s[alutem] pl[urimam] d[icit]
Car[olus] Linnaeus.

Ante unum vel alterumve [sic] diem mecum convenit WishofiusWishoff, Conrad (?-?). Dutch.
Publisher in Leiden 1710-1750. Wishoff
published Classes plantarum and
Genera plantarum by Linnaeus as
well as Pehr Artediís
Ichtyologia. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
aperiens literas, quibus desideratissimum diu ab[a][a] : MS1 [added above the line] orbe opus ipsi obtulisti. Doluit se tot suscepisse edenda opera, ut vix hoc posset, praesertim in Botanicis ubi pauciores artis aestimatores. Exsiliebam prae gaudio cum tandem percepi desideratissimum opus proditurum. Dolemus tamen, quod deliberaret Bibliopola tam eximium suscipere librum, cuius par vix alterum umquam habuit. Promittebam me mox aditurum D[ominum] BoerhaaveBoerhaave, Herman (1668-1738).
Dutch. Professor of medicine, botany and
chemistry at Leiden. One of the most
influential professors of medicine of
the eighteenth century. Linnaeus visited
him during his stay in Holland.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, nusquam advocaturum alium Bibliopolam, ut ipsi iste honos oblatus non contingeret. Regessit Wishofius, quod si modo sciret opus divendi posse se quidem fore paratum assumere idem, praesertim si Botanices Professor hoc opus apud studiosos commendaret, facile divenderetur, dixit.[b][b] : MS1 [added above the line] Adii mox D[ominum] V[an] RoyenRoyen, Adriaan van (1705-1779).
Dutch. Professor of botany, director of
the botanical garden of Leiden.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, qui satisfecit Wishofio, ut jam ab omni parte contentus opus assumat. Communis Amicus D[ominus] GaubiusGaub, Hieronymus David
(1705-1780). German. Physician,
professor of chemistry and medicine at
Leiden.
, cui mox obvius eram et omnino suasit Wishofio ad editionem operis, simulque ut ederet cum opere Swammerdamiano De Pulmonibus[2] et Tuam De Pulmonibus aegregiam dissertationem, adeoque habet jam editorem paratum, qui eo reliquis praestat, quod quae promittat, fide pari sistit, quod in ista gente rarum.

Permaneo hic in finem Februarii. Si interim opus accedat, sique Tibi placeat, curabo, ut litterae proportionatae pro classibus, nominibus genericis et specificis ac synonymis adhibeantur, sique alia in re ulla inservire potero, me totum ad Tua officia offero.

Cum proxime rescribas, me certiorem facias, num semina per postam (ut vocant) mittere possim.

Dudum a typographis absolutus Hortus Cliffortianus adhuc dum non prodiit prae chalcographorum segnitiem.[3]

ArtediArtedi, Peter (1705-1735).
Swedish. Ichtyologist. Close friend of
Linnaeus.
de piscibus opus quoad duae partes absolutum est, imprimitur nunc ejus pinax seu Synonymia (magni laboris opus) et piscium genera cum suis speciebus.[4]

Retulit mihi nuper D[ominus] Boerhaave, quod alter tomus Micheli, Pietro Antonio
(1679-1737). Italian. Botanist, curator
of the botanical garden of Florence.
Before Linnaeus the leading authority on
cryptogames.
hoc tempore sudet, flagro videre filicum flores.

D[ominus] AmmanusAmman, Johann (1707-1741).
Swiss/Russian?. Curator of Hans Sloaneís
natural history collection. Professor of
botany at the Imperial Academy of
Sciences at St Petersburg. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
scribit se Societati Petropolitanae obtulisse Dissertationem de Filicibus, quae alia folia sterilia, alia florifera in eadem specie producunt. Sperat idem, quod eius Tr[actatus] de plantis Siberiae[c][c] : MS1 <Russiae> Siberiae et Tartariae rarioribus intra proximam aestatem erit paratus.

Retulit D[ominus] de la CroixSauvages, François Boissier de
La Croix de
(1706-1767). French.
Botanist and clergyman and physician,
professor in medicine at Montpellier.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, quod ReaumuriusRéaumur, René-Antoine
Ferchault de
(1683-1757). French.
Physicist and naturalist. His works
cover geometry, technology, mineralogy,
ornithology. His collections of natural
history objects, mineralogy etc. were
given to the Académie des
sciences after his death. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
et de lapidibus commentare adgressus est. Vereor, quod in istis non tanta praestet ac in insectis.

Si quid noveris de Holosteo DilleniiDillenius, Johann Jacob
(1684-1747). German/British. Studied at
Giessen. Sherardian professor of botany
at Oxford. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, mecum communices. Ego certe nunquam vidi Alsinem petalis trifidis. Quot ipsi stamina? An decem? Quot pistilla?

Sic et de Tribuloide TournefortiiTournefort de, Joseph Pitton
(1656-1708). French. Botanist and
explorer, professor of botany at Paris.
. Quot isti petala? An quatuor? Qualis calyx, quot stamina et pistilla? In tota Anglia et toto Belgio et tota Suecia frustra flores Tribuloidis quaesivi in herbariis omnibus.

Cum hinc discedam, quantum ego unquam novi, directe Gottingam peto, ut in Te reperiam Praeceptorem in muscis. Utinam non onerosum haberes!

Scripsi in Systemate, quod omnes agnoscerent fundamentum fructificationis Botanici, nisi forte solus HeisterusHeister, Lorenz (1683-1758).
German. Anatomist and surgeon,
considered the father of German surgery.
Professor of anatomy and surgery in
1720, of theoretical medicine and botany
at Helmstädt in 1730. He rejected
Linnaeusís sexual system. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
, quem inter Botanicos recensui.[5] Videbatur enim mihi magnus iste Vir negare hoc, dum a foliis ordines et genera instituebat. Hoc aegre ferens ille, scripsit ad SiegesbeckiumSiegesbeck, Johann Georg
(1686-1755). German. Prussian botanist,
doctor of medicine at Wittenberg in
1716, physician and director of the
botanical garden at St Petersburg
1735-1747. One of the most bitter
opponents of Linnaeusís sexual system.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, ut eius partes in se sumeret, qui ex eius commendatione Petropolim accessit. Assumsit, et, ut audio, Dissertationem criticam, in qua me dure reprehendit.[6] Bonus vir edit, qui toties antea ad me honestas literas dedit. Sic et amicissimus D[ominus] LudwigiusLudwig, Christian Gottlieb
(1709-1773). German. Physician.
Professor of medicine in Leipzig. One of
Linnaeusís early opponents.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
et se contra me quid tentaturum ultimis monuit. Ego facile victus, qui arma jam depono, qui nunquam me defendam.[7]

Plura de his et aliis in verbis, cum advenero. Spero me aliquid Tibi gratum praestare posse.

Imprimitur hic Artedi opus (certe sine pari) de piscibus. Obstupescas ad eius pinacem. Habet genera, characteres, classes, species, nomina specifica, differentias, etc.

Ego methodos omnes: CaesalpiniCesalpino, Andrea (1519-1603).
Italian. Botanist, professor of medicine
and botany in Pisa and Rome and
physician of Clement VIII. Best known
for his De plantis libri xvi
(1583).
, MorisoniMorison, Robert (1620-1683).
British. Botanist and physician.
Physician-in-ordinary to Charles II.
Professor in botany at Oxford.
, Raj[i]Ray, John (1627-1705).
British. Naturalist and clergyman. One
of the most influential botanists before
Linnaeus.
, KnautiiKnaut, Christopher (1638-1694).
German. Botanist, Halle.
, HermanniHermann, Paul (1646-1695).
German. Botanist, physician at Batavia,
professor of botany at Leiden.
, BoerhaaviiBoerhaave, Herman (1668-1738).
Dutch. Professor of medicine, botany and
chemistry at Leiden. One of the most
influential professors of medicine of
the eighteenth century. Linnaeus visited
him during his stay in Holland.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
(quae jam jam impressa est) RiviniRivinus, August Quirinus
(1652-1723). German. Professor of
medicine and botany at Leipzig.
Constructed a plant classification
system based on petals.
, RuppiiRuppe, Heinrich Bernhard
(1688-1719). German. Student of
medicine, botanist, author of the
Flora Jenensis (1718).
, Ludwigii, Knautii [sic], TournefortiiTournefort de, Joseph Pitton
(1656-1708). French. Botanist and
explorer, professor of botany at Paris.
, MagnoliiMagnol, Pierre (1683-1715).
French. Physician and botanist, director
of the botanical garden of Montpellier.
, meam de Sexu et Calyce, VaillantiiVaillant, Sébastien
(1669-1722). French. Botanist and
surgeon. Professor at the Jardin des
plantes. His theory on plant sexuality
influenced Linnaeus who regarded
Vaillant as one of the most important
botanists.
et PontederaePontedera, Giulio (1688-1757).
Italian. Director of the botanical
garden and professor of botany at Padua.
He rejected Linnaeusís system. Linnaeus
named a family of Narcissoides,
Pontederia, after him.
de Compositis, ScheuchzeriScheuchzer, Johann (1684-1738).
Swiss. Botanist, professor of physics
at Zürich. Brother of Johann Jacob
Scheuchzer. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, et Raji de Graminibus, DilleniiDillenius, Johann Jacob
(1684-1747). German/British. Studied at
Giessen. Sherardian professor of botany
at Oxford. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
de Muscis et Fungis, chronologiam generum, etc., ut uno noto nomine noscam, quid dicatur genus apud omnes systematicos, ut facile evolvant tyrones omnes methodos, et si unica deficiat, suppleat altera. Synonyma generibus semper addidi.

[d][d] : MS1 [added in the left
margin
]
Absit, quod ego unquam defendo methodos artificiales, ac si ullo modo comparandae essent cum naturalibus. Utinam sciremus plura de classibus naturalibus![d][d] : MS1 [added in the left
margin
]

Haec volante manu, festinanti calamo des veniam oro. Vale et in hoc cum bene multis vivas et floreas Botanicorum Decus et facile princeps!

upSUMMARY

Albrecht von Haller had offered Wishoff a book to be printed. But the latter doubted if he would be able to undertake the edition.

Linnaeus is sorry that Wishoff is hesitating. Linnaeus promised to see Herman Boerhaave. Wishoff answered that if he only knew that he could sell the book, he would undertake the work, especially if the professor of botany would recommend the work to his students. Adriaan van Royen persuaded Wishoff to undertake the work. Their mutual friend Hieronymus David Gaub also persuaded Wishoff to edit the work and at the same time Jan Swammerdamís De pulmonibus and Hallerís dissertation De pulmonibus.

Linnaeus will stay in Leiden until the end of February. If he receives Hallerís work during this time he will see that types are appointed for the classes, generic and specific names and synonyms.

Linnaeusís Hortus Cliffortianus has long been printed, but is not yet published.

Petrus Artediís work De piscibus is printed in two parts and his index or Synonymia piscium et genera with their species are now in the press.

Boerhaave told Linnaeus that Pietro Antonio Micheliís second work is in the press and Linnaeus longs to see the flowers of Ferns.

Johann Amman offered his dissertation, De filicibus, to the Academy of St Petersburg, in which he describes some (fern) leaves without and others bearing flowers. Amman hopes that his work on rare plants of Siberia and Tartaria will be finished next summer.

François Boissier De la Croix de Sauvages told Linnaeus that Antoine Ferchault René de Réaumur has started working on fossils, but Linnaeus fears that he will not be as successful as he was with insects.

If Haller knows anything about Johan Jakob Dilleniusís Holosteum, Linnaeus wants to know. He has never seen an Alsine with threecleft flowers and wants to know how many stamens and pistils it has got.

How many petals, etc. has Joseph Pitton de Tournefortís Tribuloides. Linnaeus has been searching for the flowers of Tribuloides in England, Holland and Sweden without result.

He will come to Göttingen to enjoy Hallerís learning in mosses, when he leaves Leiden.

Linnaeus wrote in his Systema naturae that all botanists, except Lorenz Heister, acknowledge the importance of fructification. Heister seemed to deny this when he established his orders and genera on the leaves. Heister was offended at the remark and wrote to Johann Georg Siegesbeck to make him take his part and Siegesbeck, edited a critical dissertation in which he criticises Linnaeus. Linnaeusís good friend Christian Gottlieb Ludwig has also announced that he will polemise with him, but Linnaeus has no intention of defending himself.

Petrus Artediís work De piscibus is being printed. Haller will be surprised by the index, which has genera, characters, classes, species, specific names and differences.

Linnaeus is printing the methods of Andrea Cesalpino, Robert Morison, John Ray, Christopher Knaut, Paul Hermann, Herman Boerhaave (which is printed already), August Quirinus Rivinus, Heinrich Bernhard Ruppe, Ludwig, Knaut, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Pierre Magnol and his system, De sexu et calyce, Sébastien Vaillantís and Giulio Pontederaís on the composites, Johann Scheuchzerís and Rayís on grasses, Dilleniusís on mosses and Fungi and a chronology of genera, to be able to see what each genus is called by all systematic writers and to let tiros use all systems easily; if one is incomplete, they can consult another. Linnaeus has added synonyms to the genera everywhere.

Linnaeus will never defend the artificial methods as if they in any way could be compared to the natural ones. He wishes he knew more about natural classes.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. (Private collection). [1] [2] [3] [4]

upEDITIONS

1. Epistolarum ab eruditis viris ad Alb. Hallerum scriptarum I-VI (1773), vol. 1
2. Collectio epistolarum (1792), p. 31-33 .
3. A selection (1821), vol. 2, p. 308-311   p.308  p.309  p.310  p.311.
4. Vie de Linnť (1832), vol. 2, p. 92- .

upTEXTUAL NOTES

a.
MS1 [added above the line]
b.
MS1 [added above the line]
c.
MS1 <Russiae> Siberiae
d.
MS1 [added in the left margin]

upEXPLANATORY NOTES

1.
In 1734, Albrecht von Haller was elected the first foreign member of the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala.
2.
Swammerdam, Tractatus de respiratione usuque pulmonum .
3.
4.
5.
6.
The correspondence with Linnaeus ended when Siegesbeck published his Epicrisis (added to Botanosophiae verioris brevis sciagraphiaSiegesbeck, Johann Georg
Botanosophiae verioris brevis
sciagraphia in usum discentium adornata.
Accedit ob argumenti analogiam,
Epicrisis in clar. Linnaei nuperrime
evulgatum systema plantarum sexuale, et
huic superstructam methodum
botanicam
(St Petersburg 1737).
), in which he tried to refute Linnaeusís sexual system by saying that God would never have allowed such abominable unchastity among his innocent plants. In 1739 Linnaeusís friend, Johan BrowalliusBrowallius, Johan (1707-1755).
Swedish. Professor of physics, later of
theology. Bishop of Åbo.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, refuted Siegesbeckís criticism in Examen epicriseos in systema plantarum sexuale Cl. LinnaeiBrowallius, Johan Examen
epicriseos in systema plantarum sexuale
Cl. Linnaei, Anno 1737 Petropoli
evulgatae, auctore Jo. Georgio
Siegesbeckio [...] jussu amicorum
institutum
(Åbo 1739).
. In this work he asserted that Linnaeus could be criticised for bringing together widely different plants. But this could be said of every artificial system and could not be avoided until a real natural system was discovered. Johann Gottlieb GleditschGleditsch, Johann Gottlieb
(1714-1786). German. Botanist and
sylviculturist in Berlin, disciple of
Anton Wilhelm Platz and Johann Ernst
Hebenstreit, supervisor of Caspar Boseís
garden 1731-1735, professor at the
Collegium Medico-Chirurgicum in 1746.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
defended Linnaeus in Consideratio epicriseos SiegesbeckianaeGleditsch, Johann Gottlieb
Consideratio epicriseos
Siegesbeckianae in Linnaei systema
plantarum sexuale et methodum botanicam
huic superstructam, viro celeberrimo
cujuscumque scientiarum promotori,
communicata
(Berlin 1740).
(see the letters from Gleditsch to Linnaeus). As an answer to the last work Siegesbeck published Vaniloquentiae botanicae specimenSiegesbeck, Johann Georg
Vaniloquentiae botanicae specimen, a
M. Io. Gottlieb Gleditsch in
consideratione Epicriseos
Siegesbeckianae in scripta botanica
Linnaei, pro rite obtinendo sexualistae
titulo, nuper evulgatum, jure vero
retorsionis refutatum et elusum a Io.
Georgio Siegesbeck
(St Petersburg
1741).
.
7.
Ludwig, Observationes in methodum plantarum sexualem cel. LinnaeiLudwig, Christian Gottlieb
Observationes in methodum plantarum
sexualem cel. Linnaei
(Leipzig
1739).
.