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Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L0373 • Johan Frederik Gronovius to Carl Linnaeus, 10 February 1740 n.s.
Dated 10 Febr. 1740.. Sent from Leiden (Netherlands) to Stockholm (Sweden). Written in Latin.

Charissime Linnaee

Elapsis quatuor diebus accepi Literas Vestras 18 Decemb[ris] inscriptas, quae mihi gratissima fuere, et tanto magis quod tam prompte ad omnia respondeas non modo, sed et quae in praecedenti subterfugerant, nunc communicare non desinas, ut egregie fecisti in Anagallide. Ego vicissim vix perlecta Epistola consulere WishoviumWishoff, Conrad (?-?). Dutch.
Publisher in Leiden 1710-1750. Wishoff
published Classes plantarum and
Genera plantarum by Linnaeus as
well as Pehr Artedi’s
Ichtyologia. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
non desii, qui professus sibi quadraginta tantum Generum exemplaria superesse, ambabus manibus novam editionem se moliturum dixit,[1] simulque generose Te donaturum tot exemplaribus, quot cum alijs Literis praestitit. Neque minus laetabatur, quum perceperat Librum Species Plantarum inscriptum, paratum esse, quem praedictis conditionibus libenter suscipiet.[2] Nunc itaque Tecum cogita de Methodo & Modo imprimendi. In generibus mihi haeret unicus scrupulus, cum genera sint notata numeris 1, 2, 3 &c. et isti numeri sequantur in corollario, quibus quoque numeris singula genera in Horto Cliffortiano & Prodromo D[omin]i van RoyenRoyen, Adriaan van (1705-1779).
Dutch. Professor of botany, director of
the botanical garden of Leiden.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
[3] sunt notata. Ergo in nova editione Characteres Generum in Appendice & Corollario dati suis locis inseri debent, ut proinde numeri eorum quibus allegantur in Horto Cliffortiano & Prodromo Florae Leydensis nequaquam sint responsuri. Vide ad Signum N[ota] B[ene]. Dein & alteram moveo quaestionem, quum transfretatio marina sit periculosa necesse est, ut Exemplar Manuscripti semper Tecum retineas, ne quod Deus avertat, totum opus pereat. Occurrit in memoriam an non per proceres Stokholmiae possent partitim mitti ad Legatum Sueciae qui Hagae vivit Comitum, ad quem singulis hebdomadibus fasciculum per Tabellarium publicum mittunt.

N[ota] B[ene]. Heri cum D[omino] van Royen qui te plurimum salutat, locutus sum, qui haesitationem meam facile solvit, censens Generum Characteres posse imprimi modo quo velis, nihilque ad rem facere, utrum citationes eorum in Prodromo ejus ac in Horto Cliffortiano respondeant vel non numeris, quibus characteres in priori editione se invicem sequuntur[a][a] : <imp> [N[ota] B[ene] -
sequuntur additur in margine]
.

Gratias ago plurimas pro observationibus botanicis, quae sane sunt egegriae desiderans si adhuc quaedam restent, mecum communicare velis. Nunc iterum accepi quaedam ex Virginia specimina, sed parca. Semina vero misit ClaytonusClayton, John (1685-1773).
British/American. Physician and
botanist. Born i England, moved to
Virginia in North America in 1715. His
herbarium collected in Virginia was
published by Johan Frederik Gronovius
and Linnaeus in Flora Virginica
(1739, 1743). Correspondent of Linnaeus.
curiosissima. Horum omnium Te reddam participem, quam primum intensum frigus, quod nos exercet, desiit. Nihil certi adhuc determinare queo an Marina BoerhavijBoerhaave, Herman (1668-1738).
Dutch. Professor of medicine, botany and
chemistry at Leiden. One of the most
influential professors of medicine of
the eighteenth century. Linnaeus visited
him during his stay in Holland.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
ad CliffortiumClifford, George (1685-1760).
Dutch. Banker and merchant in Amsterdam,
Linnaeus’s benefactor. Owner of
Hartecamp and its botanical garden
outside Haarlem. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
vel RoellumRoëll, Wilhelm
(1700-1775). Dutch. Professor of
anatomy at Amsterdam. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
pertineant. Neutrum enim spatio 3 mensium locutus.[4]

Saevissima hyems, quod in imprimendo Catalogo Lapidum procedere nequeam, impedit. De quo Libro Tu aliter sentis quam ego. Quippe non alia mente hunc imprimere meditor, quam ut possim parvulum librum in manibus habere, quum specimina mea pervolvo, ut hinc 200 exemplaria possint sufficere, quorum si tertiam partem desideres, lubentissime offeram. Evitabo quocunque modo ne crescat in Librum, hinc & ne praefationem quidem addam & neque fortasse titulum.[5]

ShawijShaw, Thomas (1692-1751).
British. Explorer, professor of Greek at
Oxford. Collector of natural history
objects. Travelled in the Middle East
and in Africa.
Itinerarium[6] imprimitur lingua vernacula Amstelodami, quanti autem constabit, nondum constat. D[ominus] van SwietenSwieten, Gerhard van
(1700-1772). Dutch. Pupil of Boerhaave.
Called by Maria Theresa to Vienna, where
he organised the public health system.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
in opere Boerhaviano optime procedit.[7] DilleniusDillenius, Johann Jacob
(1684-1747). German/British. Studied at
Giessen. Sherardian professor of botany
at Oxford. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
occupatur historia Muscorum, quorum ingentem copiam aeri incidi curavit.[8] Subscriptiones brevi expecto. Miror sane quod nunquam in literis de flora Virginica mentionem faciat. Alioquin valde humane mecum agit.

Nuperrime quoque de nova editione Fundamentorum Botanicorum Sermo fuit eadem forma & magnitudine qua omnes Libri Tui impressi sunt, quod si Tibi placeret, incitabo Bibliopolam. Si itaque vel quaedam addenda vel emendanda habeas, per literas me commonefacere poteris.[9]

Desidero videre Catalogum animalium Sueciae, de quo anno fere elapso scripsisti,[10] ut et Hortum Ageramensem [sic].[11] Maxime autem Johannis BrowalliiBrowallius, Johan (1707-1755).
Swedish. Professor of physics, later of
theology. Bishop of Åbo.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
viri sane Doctissimi Examen Epicriseos Siebesbeckianae.[12]

Opus D[omini] SebaeSeba, Albert (1665-1736).
Dutch. Pharmacist and collector of
natural history specimens, Amsterdam.
[13] duo complectitur volumina, quae subscriptoribus constent 90 florenis; in auctione Boerhavii constitere ni fallor 60 flor[enis]. Quum mense Octobri essem Amstelodami, fama spargebatur de imprimendo tertio volumine, quod an verum an falsum, me latet.

SwammerdammiiSwammerdam, Jan (1637-1680).
Dutch. Naturalist. By his microscopical
studies Swammerdam made fundamental
scientific contributions to the study of
entomology. Boerhaave edited his
Biblia naturae sive historia
insectorum
(1737-1738).
opus subscriptoribus pollicebatur 18 florenis comparandum, sed cum secundus tomus longe majorem plagularum comprehendat numerum quam sibi proposuerat bibliopola, pretium quinque vel sex auxerunt florenis.[14]

Tomum tertium Historiae plantarum RajiRay, John (1627-1705).
British. Naturalist and clergyman. One
of the most influential botanists before
Linnaeus.
[15] bis modo separatim vidi, singulosque comparavi 12 florenis, quorum altero meum exemplar auxi, alterum vero D[omin]o PortzPortz, Johan Daniel van
(1688-1753). Dutch?.
communicavi. Non dubito quin per LawsonumLawson, Isaac (?-1747).
British. Scottish botanist and
physician. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
facile posses comparare, uti & tabulas PluknetijPlukenet, Leonard (1642-1706).
British. Botanist and physician.
Botanist to Mary II (wife of William
III). Superintendent of Hampton Court.
quae hic nunquam separatim occurrunt.[16]

SegueriiSéguier, Jean François
(1703-1784). French. Antiquarian
and botanist, Nimes. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
Bibliotheca[17] nondum est impressa, sed sis persuasus quod ilico sis habiturus. Royenii Epistolam reperies in cistula cum libris, plantis & seminibus. Egregius pictor EhretEhret, Georg Dionysius
(1710-1770). German/British. Botanical
illustrator. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
quem sine dubio & hic & in Anglia novisti, MilleriMiller, Philip (1691-1771).
British. Gardener of the Chelsea Physic
Garden. Corresponded with many
botanists. His rich herbarium was sold
to Joseph Banks. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
sororem in uxorem duxit; brevi autem res ita comparatae erant, ut satius esse censuerit illam relinquere et Lugduni Batavorum victum quaeritare.[18]

Quum nunc habites Stockholmiae, liceat quaeso Te desiderare ut inquiras de consanguineo meo, cui cognomen est PincierPincier, (?-?). ?. , qui ante 35 annos vel circiter hic studuit et Juri operam dedit. Si adhuc sit in vivis, quaeso salutes eum meo nomine.

CramerusKramer, Johann Andreas
(1710-1777). German. Chemist and
physician, member of the scientific club
in Leiden of which Linnaeus was
president.
ex Anglia redux adhuc hic haeret, ocreis Anglicis & tunica venatoria (parvula veste absque plicis) valde insignis. Quid autem porro agat me latet.

Huc tenus hasce scripseram, quum mihi annunciatur mors Cognati mei Optimi D[omini] DibbetijDibbets, Henricus (1660-1740).
Dutch. Preacher, Leiden, from 1695 to
1737.
Theologi[?] primarij, qui vivens mihi sepulturae & bonorum curam demandans proprias res differre coactus fui, quae causa quod parum serius haec ad Te veniat.

Nunc frigus remittere videtur, quae scenae mutatio me monet, ut specimina ultimo ex Virginia accepta pariter & semina, taliaque quae in hortulo colligere licuit, cistulae includam, quae prima navi Tibi curabitur.

In rebus Botanicis nihil novi, alioquin lubenter communicarem. Incertus vero adhuc sum an Opus RumphianumRumpf, Georg Eberhard
(1628-1702). Dutch. Naturalist and
merchant in the service of the Dutch
East India Company. Governor of the
Dutch colony Ambon. He published two
works on the flora of the isle of Ambon.
sit processurum.[19] Si interdum quid novi ad aures veniat in literis cum cistula cognosces, praesertim si in tempore subscriptiones pro Historia Muscorum Dillenii comparare queam.

Professor WittickiusWittichius, Jacob (1671-1739).
Dutch. Professor of philosophy, later of
mathematics, Leiden.
supremam vidit diem: successit ei summus Amicus meus MussenbroekiusMusschenbroek, Jan van
(1687-1748). Dutch. Professor of
physics, Leiden. Instrument maker.
qui Te maximopere salutat.

Expectabimus itaque chartas tuas hic imprimendas, quas tam sincere et sancte hic curabimus, ac si Ipse praesens adesses;[20] tantoque vales apud Wishovium favore et ardore, ut ab hoc tempore non necesse sit apud Eum inquirere an velit imprimere, sed ut modo jubeas quod imprimat talia quae transmittis. Si itaque quae alia curiosa parata habeas, ad nos mittere poteris.

Nunc vale Mi Linnaee, ac charissimam Tuam uxorem meo et meae nomine saluta, Tuoque fave

Joanni Frederico Gronovio.

Lugd[uni] Bat[avorum], 10 Febr[uarii] 1740.

[address] Mons[ieur] / Mons[ieu]r Charles Linnaeus / Docteur en / Medecine a / Stokholm.

upSUMMARY

Johan Frederik Gronovius has received Linnaeus’s letter of 18 December 1739 and thanks him for having answered all his questions so promptly. He is happy to inform Linnaeus that Conrad Wishoff is willing to print a new edition of the Genera plantarum, as only 40 copies of the first edition remain in stock. By the same token, Wishoff would be glad to print Linnaeus’s Species plantarum. Gronovius mentions two problems regarding the printing of these works. The first problem concerns the numbers attached to the genera. In the new edition of Genera plantarum, the genera listed in the “Appendix” to the first edition of Genera plantarum and in the Corollorarium ought to be inserted in the main part of the work. As a consequence, the number attached to each genus will change significantly, which is all the more to be regretted as the old numbering has been adopted in the Hortus Cliffortianus composed by Linnaeus and the Florae Leydensis Prodromus drawn up by Adriaan van Royen. Next, there is a practical problem involved in sending the author’s manuscript to Leiden. Gronovius urges Linnaeus always to keep a copy of the manuscript for himself and wonders whether the sheets destined for the printer could be sent weekly to the Swedish embassador at the Hague through the agency of Linnaeus’s noble friends in Stockholm.

Gronovius thanks Linnaeus for the botanical observations he has sent. He has received a small amount of new plants from Virginia as well as some curious seeds that were sent to him by John Clayton. He will impart them to Linnaeus as soon as the sharp frost has ceased. Gronovius is unable to tell wether Herman Boerhaave’s marine collections are in the possession of George Clifford or Wilhelm Röell.

The severe winter prevented Gronovius from proceeding with the printing of his catalogue of minerals. Once again, he explains that he merely aims to have a small booklet printed for private purposes. Therefore, 200 copies of the volume will suffice in his opinion. He is happy to offer Linnaeus one third of them. For similar reasons, he does not want to add a preface to the work and perhaps not even a title.

The Dutch translation of Thomas Shaw’s itinerary is in the press at Amsterdam. Gerard van Swieten is making good progress with the publication of Herman Boerhaave’s work. Johann Jacob Dillenius is busy writing a history of mosses. Although he treats Gronovius in a gentle way, he never mentions the latter’s Flora Virginica in his letters.

If Linnaeus wants him to do so, Gronovius will urge the printer to publish a new edition of the Fundamenta botanica.

Gronovius would like to see Linnaeus’s catalogue of Swedish animals, Johan Eberhard Ferber’s Hortus Agerumensis and above all Johan Browallius’s Examen epicriseos in systema plantarum sexuale Linnaei. Albert Seba’s work Rerum naturalium thesaurus consists of two volumes; rumor has it that a third volume will be published. The bookseller has decided to increase the price of Jan Swammerdam’s work, as the second volume exceeds the expected number of pages. Gronovius recommends Linnaeus to purchase the third volume of John Ray’s Historia plantarum, as well Leonard Plukenet’s tables through Isaac Lawson. Jean François Séguier’s Bibliotheca botanica has not yet been printed. Linnaeus will find a letter from Adriaan van Royen in the box which Gronovius has sent him. The painter Georg Dionysius Ehret married Philip Miller’s sister but left her soon and fled to Leiden in order to make a living there.

Gronovius asks Linnaeus to make inquiries about his relative Pincier. He informs his friend that Johann Andreas Kramer has returned from England and is still staying in Leiden.

Gronovius wants Linnaeus to know that the present letter arrived so late in Stockholm because the death of the theologian Henrik Dibbets, a relative of his who had asked him to act as his executor, prevented him from continuing his personal affairs.

The forst seems to be broken, and the change of scenery reminds Gronovius of the fact that he has to send Linnaeus the latest specimens of plants which he received from Virginia as well as some new seeds from his own garden.

No news from the world of botany. Gronovius does not know whether Georg Eberhard Rumpf’s Herbarium Amboinense is proceeding. He will inform Linnaeus in due time about the subscription for Dillenius’s Historia Muscorum.

Jacobus Wittichius has died and has been succeeded by his dear friend Jan van Musschenbroek who sends Linnaeus his regards. Gronovius is awaiting Linnaeus’s sheets which will be printed in Leiden with utmost care. Wishoff holds Linnaeus in such a high esteem that there is no need for Linnaeus anymore to inquire whether he would be willing to print his works or not.

In a postscript, Gronovius informs Linnaeus that he has talked with Van Royen the day before. Van Royen has released him from his doubts regarding the printing of Genera plantarum. He was of the opinion that it did not matter whether the numbers given to the various genera described in the Florae Leydensis Prodromus and the Hortus Cliffortianus corresponded to those of the first edition of Genera plantarum or not.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (LS, V, 448-449). [1] [2] [3]

upTEXTUAL NOTES

a.
<imp> [N[ota] B[ene] - sequuntur additur in margine]

upEXPLANATORY NOTES

1.
2.
3.
4.
It is Wilhelm Roëll rather than George Clifford who bought Boerhaave’s marine collections. See Gronovius’s letter to Linnaeus of 22 April 1740 n.s.Letter L0380.
5.
Gronovius’s catalogue of minerals was published at Leiden in 1740. Contrary to his initial plans, it bore a specific title (IndexGronovius, Johan Frederik
Index supellectilis lapideae
(Leiden, 1740).
) and contained a preface. See especially Gronovius’s letter to Linnaeus of 14 October 1740 n.s.Letter L0407.
6.
Shaw’s TravelsShaw, Thomas Travels, or
observations relating to several parts
of Barbary and the Levant
(Oxford
1738).
was printed at Oxford in 1738. A French and German translation was published in 1743 and 1765, respectively. See Pritzel, ThesaurusShaw, Thomas , no. 9607. Pritzel does not mention any Dutch translation.
7.
Swieten was to publish his Commentaria (the so-called praxis medica) at Leiden in 1741-1742. Gronovius announced the news already in his letters of 17 March 1737 n.s.Letter L0153, 12 July 1739 n.s.Letter L0291 and 7 December 1739Letter L0313.
8.
9.
The second edition of the Fundamenta botanicaLinnaeus, Carl Fundamenta
botanica, quae majorum operum prodromi
instar theoriam scientiae botanices per
breves aphorismos tradunt
(Amsterdam
1736). Soulsby no. 253.
did not appear in Holland. It was published together with the second edition of the Systema naturaeLinnaeus, Carl Systema
naturae, sive regna tria naturae
systematice proposita per classes,
ordines, genera & species

(Leiden 1735). Soulsby no. 39.
by Gottfried Kiesewetter at Stockholm in 1740. See Soulsby, Catalogue of the works of Linnaeus in the British MuseumSoulsby, Basil A catalogue of
the works of Linnaeus in the British
Museum
(London 1933).
, no. 258.
A reference to Linnaeus’s Animalia per Sveciam observataLinnaeus, Carl “Animalia per
Sveciam observata”, ALSS 4
(1736), 97-138 [1742]. Soulsby no. 1104,
Soulsby no. 1143
first published in the Acta literaria Sueciae, vol. 4 (Uppsala 1736 [imo 1742]), 97-138. Linnaeus promised to send Gronovius a copy of this work earlier in 1737. See Gronovius’s letter to Linnaeus of 17 March 1739 n.s.Letter L0278. In his letter of 12 July 1739 n.s.Letter L0291, Gronovius reminded his friend of his promise.
A reference to Ferber’s Hortus Agerumensis See Gronovius’s letter to Linnaeus of 12 July 1739 n.s.Letter L0291.
A reference to Browallius, Examen epicriseos in systema plantarum sexuale Cl. LinnaeiBrowallius, Johan Examen
epicriseos in systema plantarum sexuale
Cl. Linnaei, Anno 1737 Petropoli
evulgatae, auctore Jo. Georgio
Siegesbeckio [...] jussu amicorum
institutum
(Åbo 1739).
, first published at Åbo in 1739 and re-issued at Leiden in 1743.
Swammerdam, BijbelSwammerdam, Jan Biblia
naturae; sive historia insectorum, in
classes certas redacta, nec non
exemplis, et anatomico variorvm
animalculorum examine, aeneisque tabulis
illustrata [...] Omnia lingua Batava
[...] conscripta. Accedit praefatio, in
qua vitam auctoris descripsit Hermannus
Boerhaave. Latinam versionem adscripsit
Hieronimus David Gaubius
, 2 vols.
(Leiden, 1737-1738).
. The first volume was issued at Leiden in 1737, the second one appeared in 1738. The first volume was offered to the subscribers as early as January 1737. See Gronovius’s letter to Linnaeus of 13 January 1737 n.s.Letter L0141. The present letter is misleading in so far as it suggests that Swammerdam’s work was published by one bookseller. This was not the case. The publication of Biblia naturae was a joint enterprise undertaken by Isaac SeverinusSeverinus, Isaac (?-?). Dutch.
Bookseller at Leiden.
, Boudewyn van der AaAa, Petrus Boudewyn van der
(?-?). Dutch. Publisher and bookseller
in Leiden, 1700-1750.
and PieterAa, Pieter van der (1659-1733).
Dutch. Publisher and bookseller in
Leiden.
van der Aa, as can readily be inferred from the title-page of the work.
A reference to Plukenet, Almagestum botanicum .
A reference to Séguier, Bibliotheca botanica , which was issued at The Hague in 1740. The publication was already announced in Gronovius’s letter to Linnaeus of 17 March 1739 n.s.Letter L0278. See also his letter of 4 September 1739 n.s.Letter L0303.
After a visit to London where he met Sir Hans SloaneSloane, Hans (1660-1753).
British. Physician, naturalist and
collector. Secretary of the Royal
Society in 1693, president in 1727.
Sloane’s collections of natural history
objects were donated to the English
nation and were one of cornerstones of
the British Museum (1759). Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
and Philip Miller, Georg Dionysius Ehret travelled to Holland in 1736 where he got in touch with George Clifford. Later in 1736, he returned to London., England would be his permanent home. In 1738, he married Philip Miller’s sister Susanna Kennet and linked himself securely to Miller’s circle. According to Le Rougetel, The Chelsea gardener: Philip Miller 1691–1771Le Rougetel, H. The Chelsea
gardener: Philip Miller 1691-1771

(London 1990).
, 106, Ehret found his permanent home in England. This information runs counter to Gronovius’s account of Ehret’s fortune.
Gronovius is expecting Linnaeus’s manuscripts of the revised edition of the Genera plantarumLinnaeus, Carl Genera
plantarum eorumque characteres naturales
secundum numerum, figuram, situm &
proportionem omnium fructificationis
partium
(Leiden 1737). Soulsby no.
284.
which was to be edited by Conrad and Georg Jacob Wishoff at Leiden in 1742. See n. 1.