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Link: • Pehr Kalm to Carl Linnaeus, 25 March 1744 n.s.
Dated 14 Martii 1744. Sent from St Petersburg (Russia) to Uppsala (Sweden). Written in Swedish.


Pehr KalmKalm, Pehr (1716-1779).
Swedish. Botanist and traveller,
professor of natural history at
Åbo. Disciple of Linnaeus.
Travelled in North America 1748-1751.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
is very grateful for Linnaeus’s letter dated 8 February [1744] [this letter has not come down to us] which he received on his return to Petersburg from Reval together with Sten Carl BielkeBielke, Sten Carl (1709-1753).
Swedish. Baron, government official,
patron of science, and naturalist. One
of the founders of the Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences. Private pupil of
Linnaeus. Close friend of Pehr Kalm,
whose voyage to America he supported
financially. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, his great Maecenas. Linnaeus’s paternal advice not to apply for the chair of physics in Åbo has made him give up all such plans. He realizes that he is not ready for this position yet and needs at least 3-4 years more of study and experience. Not until Linnaeus encourages him to do so, will he consider it. Therefore, he will not need the recommendations from the Royal Society of Sciences at Uppsala [Kungliga Vetenskaps-Societeten i UppsalaKungliga Vetenskaps-Societeten i
Swedish. The Royal
Society of Sciences at Uppsala was
founded in 1728.
] and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences [Kungliga Svenska VetenskapsakademienKungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien,
Swedish. The Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Founded
in 1739.
] or the testimonial he has asked for. As to a membership at the Academy of Sciences, the decision is completely Linnaeus’s own.

Linnaeus need not worry about the price of Johann Christian Buxbaum’sBuxbaum, Johann Christian
(1693-1730). German. Professor of
botany, St Petersburg.
Centuriae [Kalm refers to Plantarum minus cognitarum centuria I-VBuxbaum, Johann Christian
Plantarum minus cognitarum centuria
I-V, complectens plantas circa Byzantium
& in Oriente observatas, per J. C.
, I-V (St Petersburg
, because Bielke has bought all the volumes in duplicate, for Linnaeus and himself.

He has sent rare seeds together with a letter from Bielke to Linnaeus [Bielke to Linnaeus, 28 February, 1744Letter L0536] by a courier.

Kalm has spent two weeks in Reval together with Bielke, and in 4 or 5 days he will go to Moscow with him. Kalm will probably return in April or May. He will only spend his time there on botanical explorations if Linnaeus asks him to do so. His mind is all set on his journey to the Cape of Good Hope. He hopes the journey will not be cancelled, it depends on the possibility to get sponsors. It will probably not take place this summer, and Kalm doesn’t mind, as he dont feel experienced enough to embark on such a journey.

Kalm excuses himself for his bad hand-writing, he is short of time before the mail goes, and he has yet another letter to write, this time to the Countess at Lövstad [Eleonora BielkeBielke, Eleonora (1725-1786).
Swedish. Wife of Sten Carl Bielke. Born
von Mentzer.
; Lövstad, or Lövsta, the country-estate owned by Bielke].

If Kalm had time to remember, there ought to be something more to tell Linnaeus. Johann AmmanAmman, Johann (1707-1741).
Swiss/Russian?. Curator of Hans Sloane’s
natural history collection. Professor of
botany at the Imperial Academy of
Sciences at St Petersburg. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
in the end [Amman passed away in 1741] organized everything he intended to publish according to Linnaeus’s way of writing, principles and method, why [some words wiped out].

Johann Georg GmelinGmelin, Johann Georg
(1709-1755). German. Voyager, botanist
and chemist. At the initiative of
empress Anna of Russia he spent ten
years (1733-1743) exploring Siberia. In
1749 he became professor of botany and
chemistry at Tübingen. Together
with his nephew Samuel Gottlieb he wrote
Flora Sibirica (1747-1769).
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
thinks highly of Linnaeus and attributes to him an ”ingenium heroicum”. In his previous letter, written in January [Kalm to Linnaeus, 24 January 1744Letter L0528], Kalm maintained that dropsy cannot be caused by excessive drinking. He is not sure of this any more. The most common diseases in St Petersburg are: phthisis, dropsy, and scurvy. Limestone is the dominant rock in Estonia and is used for all kinds of buildings and walls. Sphagnum is used for insulting walls instead of hypnum.

P. S. 1. Kalm asks Linnaeus for his ”household remedy number 3 for headache”. The volume of the publications of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg, Imperatorskaja akademija naukImperatorskaja akademija nauk,
Imperial Academy of Sciences

Russian. Imperial Academy of Sciences of
St Petersburg, founded in 1725. Its
publications are Commentarii
Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis
, 1-14 (1726 -
1744/1746 [i.e. pub. 1728 - 1751]) and
Novi Commentarii Academiae
Scientiarum Imperialis
, 1-20 (1747/1748 -
1775 [i.e. pub. 1750 - 1776]).
[the Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae] , in which Amman describes Betula nana [“De betula pumila”Amman, Johann “De betula pumila,
folio subrotundo”, Novi commentarii
academiae scientiarum imperialis
9 (1738 [1744]),
], is now being printed.

P.S. 2. Letters to Kalm can be addressed to Bielke in St Petersburg or to his wife. Kalm sends his regards to Olof Celsius Olof CelsiusCelsius, Olof (1670-1756).
Swedish. Orientalist and theologian,
professor at Uppsala. Botanist and plant
collector, benefactor of Linnaeus.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, Anders Celsius’sCelsius, Anders (1701-1744).
Swedish. Professor of astronomy,
Uppsala. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, Nils Rosén von RosensteinRosén von Rosenstein, Nils
(1706-1773). Swedish. Physician
and professor of medicine. Colleague of
Linnaeus at Uppsala. The founder of
modern pediatrics. Correspondent of
and Samuel KlingenstjernaKlingenstierna, Samuel
(1698-1765). Swedish. Physicist and
mathematician, professor of experimental
physics at Uppsala. Correspondent of


a. (LS, VIII, 6-7). [1] [2] [3]


1. Bref och skrifvelser (1922), vol. I:8, p. 5-8   p.5  p.6  p.7  p.8.