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Link: • Johan Browallius to Carl Linnaeus, 4 February 1745 n.s.
Dated 24 Januari 1745. Sent from Åbo (Finland) to Uppsala (Sweden). Written in Swedish.


Johan BrowalliusBrowallius, Johan (1707-1755).
Swedish. Professor of physics, later of
theology. Bishop of Åbo.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
has not heard from Linnaeus for a long time.Browallius is still waiting for the seeds that Linnaeus was kind enough to promise him.

Browallius has heard that Johan Gottschalk WalleriusWallerius, Johan Gottschalk
(1709-1785). Swedish. Professor of
chemistry at Uppsala.
will print a “Systema mineralogica”. He would like to see what it will be like and if Linnaeus’s or his own will have a place in that. Browallius has prepared a “Catalogus regni mineralis”, but at this time of the year he cannot get it to Stockholm, where he wants to have it printed [this catalogue was never published]. In addition, he has another work, more useful to the country, on the improvement of the school system, which prevents him, but he hopes that that will be practised sooner than printed. From Sten Carl BielkeBielke, Sten Carl (1709-1753).
Swedish. Baron, government official,
patron of science, and naturalist. One
of the founders of the Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences. Private pupil of
Linnaeus. Close friend of Pehr Kalm,
whose voyage to America he supported
financially. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, Browallius has been informed about his ironical negotiations between Linnaeus and Johann Georg SiegesbeckSiegesbeck, Johann Georg
(1686-1755). German. Prussian botanist,
doctor of medicine at Wittenberg in
1716, physician and director of the
botanical garden at St Petersburg
1735-1747. One of the most bitter
opponents of Linnaeus’s sexual system.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
and that the ungrateful cuckoo lit a fire again and again threatens in his letter that this cuckoo still can do miracles.

From Pehr Kalm’sKalm, Pehr (1716-1779).
Swedish. Botanist and traveller,
professor of natural history at
Åbo. Disciple of Linnaeus.
Travelled in North America 1748-1751.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
letter, Browallius understands that Linnaeus’s De PeloriaLinnaeus, Carl Dissertatio
botanica de Peloria
, diss., resp. D.
Rudberg (Uppsala 1744). Soulsby no.
has caused some alarm. However, he does not think that Linnaeus should bother much about that, for if it goes against some principles accepted for defining genera, that is all. Browallius supposes that Linnaeus never have thought anything else than that, as genera are works of humans, also humans can be mistaken. At least Linnaeus must take care so that he does not reach the conclusion that this species has been established after the creation. For the Creator has determined the species by propagation by seeds, and the genera are the first and smallest bundles of those species that, according to human judgment, have been found to be most similar between them. Thus, they are useful only for one thing, to facilitate for the students in their work at elementary botany. Thus, Linnaeus must not find it strange, if a new observation reveals something that is against the rules that were previously accepted, and in that case, Linnaeus has to follow Isaac Newton’sNewton, Isaac (1642-1727).
British. Mathematician, physicist and
astronomer. Professor of mathematics at
Cambridge 1669. President of the Royal
Society 1703. Published Philosophiae
naturalis principia mathematica

(1687) and Opticks (1704).
rule: Contra veritates experientia universali et constanti stabilitas nullae admittendae sunt objectiones, nisi quae ex experientia petitae sunt. Et tum demum dogma cum hac limitatione afferendum est. [Against truth that is based on universal and constant experience, no objections are to be permitted unless fetched from experience, and not until then a thesis shall be proposed with this limitation]. The same thing may happen in botany that has been observed in the knowledge about magnetical attraction, electricity and innumerable other fields.

Browallius expresses his friendship for Linnaeus.

PS 1.In this issue, Browallius bases his thoughts on the information he has got. He is waiting for Linnaeus’s “Species Orchidum”Linnaeus, Carl "Species
Orchidum et affinium plantarum",
Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum
([1740] 1744), 1-37.
Soulsby no. 396.
. He needs it for some species of that class.


a. original holograph (LS, II, 209-210). [1] [2] [3]


1. Bref och skrifvelser (1909), vol. I:3, p. 325-327   p.325  p.326  p.327.