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Link: • Carl Linnaeus to Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, [2 January 1746] n.s.
Dated Undated, but presumably written in early January 1746. Sent from ? () to ? (). Written in Swedish.


Linnaeus writes to the the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences [Kungliga Svenska VetenskapsakademienKungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien,
Swedish. The Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Founded
in 1739.
] and takes a critical look at alleged observations that water in ponds and lakes has been turned into blood. The deceased Jesper SvedbergSvedberg, Jesper (1653-1735).
had suggested that God well could allow such miracles to happen. Hierner [Urban HiärneHiärne, Urban (1641-1724).
Swedish. Physician, pharmacologist,
mineralogist, geologist and writer, a
supporter of Paracelsianism.
] had also recorded several such events [Linnaeus here refers to Hiärne’s Den korta Anledningen til Åthskillige Malm och Bergarters, Mineraliers och Jordeslags [...] Efterspörjande och angifwandeHiärne, Urban Den korta
Anledningen til Åthskillige Malm
och Bergarters, Mineraliers och
Jordeslags [..] Efterspörjande och
(Stockholm, 1702).
] and reports had come from France (Jan SwammerdamSwammerdam, Jan (1637-1680).
Dutch. Naturalist. By his microscopical
studies Swammerdam made fundamental
scientific contributions to the study of
entomology. Boerhaave edited his
Biblia naturae sive historia
), The Netherlands and England (Derrham; Linnaeus refers to William DerhamHiärne, Urban . Three ponds in the Uppsala University Botanical Garden [LinnéträdgårdenLinnéträdgården,
Swedish. The Uppsala University
Botanical Garden was founded by Olof
Rudbeck the Elder in 1655.
] turn red every summer, which Linnaeus had shown to Samuel KlingenstiernaKlingenstierna, Samuel
(1698-1765). Swedish. Physicist and
mathematician, professor of experimental
physics at Uppsala. Correspondent of
. The phenomenon is caused by large numbers of small insects, Podura aquatica, as described by Charles De GeerDe Geer, Charles (1720-1778).
Swedish. Entomologist and natural
history collector, Leufsta Bruk. Member
of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
in Stockholm and Académie des
sciences, Paris. Corresponded with
Réaumur, Bonnet and other
naturalists. Husband of Catharina
Charlotta Ribbing and father of Emanuel
De Geer. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
[Linnaeus refers to De Geer’s “Rön och Observation öfver små Insecter som kunna håppa i högden”De Geer, Charles “Rön och
Observation öfver små
Insecter som kunna håppa i
högden,” KVAH 2 (1740), .
]. Linnaeus mentions also another insect, Monoculus, described by Swammerdam. Ducks, watn-skräbban (Dysticus), wattu-wägglöss (Cimex Tipula) wattn-wantsor (Nononectae) feed on these insects.


1. ”Extract af prof. Linnaei bref til Secret. Elvius”, (1746), p. 25-27 .
2. Botaniska Trädgården i Upsala 1655-1807 (1877), p. 65-66 .
3. Svenska arbeten (1878), vol. 1, p. 467-471   p.467  p.468  p.469  p.470  p.471.
4. Bref och skrifvelser (1908), vol. I:2, p. 64-67   p.64  p.65  p.66  p.67.
5. Herr archiatern och riddaren Linnaeus i Lärda tidningar 1745-1780 (2007), p. 17-18 .