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C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L0704 • Albrecht von Haller to Carl Linnaeus, 8 April 1746 n.s.
Dated VIII april. 1746. Sent from Göttingen (Germany) to Uppsala (Sweden). Written in Latin.

Linnaeo clarissimo S[alutem] p[lurimam]
A[lbertus] Haller.

Floram Tuam Suecicam[1] vidi his diebus et multas quidem plantas cum voluptate ibi legi recensitas. Non tamen perinde gratum fuit in adeo brevi opere me solum adeo frequenter legisse refutatum et vocibus quidem passim amarioribus quam nostra amicitia meaque, qua Tecum[a][a] : MS1 <Tu> Tecum etiam in dissentiendo usus sum, dictionis ratio aut requirebant aut merebantur. Crede[b][b] : MS1 <Vide> Crede mihi, Linnaee celeberrime, inimicis Tuis, qui neque pauci sunt neque impotentes, gratissimam rem fecisti, qui amicos Tuos ita repellis, ut vix possint nisi aliquantum de suo amore remittere aut se ipsos et existimationem suam tueri.[2] Cum non uno horum virorum saepe causam Tuam egi. Saepe inde retuli exprobationem nimii in Te obsequii, quem Tu nunc cum contemtu aliquo et cum studii manifesta indicatione adgrederis. Et vide denique, Vir clarissime, quam facile mihi sit objectiones Tuas in Te ipsum retorquere, qui videris paucissima minuta meo libro impendisse.

P. 43 Aparinem conjunxi cum Gallio. Ita jubent gradus intermedii Gallii lutei Russici cum Europaeo vulg[ari]. Summa adfinitas Aparines [c][c] : MS1 [added in the margin] vulgaris var[io][c][c] : MS1 [added in the margin] [d][d] : MS1 [added above the line] semine levi et aparines[d][d] : MS1 [added above the line] palustris semen et Gallii linifolii M[ontis] Virginis hirsuto semine, quod gallium fecistis.

P. 62.3. Campanulam unifloram distinxi flor[a] Helv[etica], n. 15, p. 495.[3] Quare necesse erat me refutare?

P. 105. Lapathum aquaticum ego non dentato sed levi dixi involucro, p. 171. Vides enim ibi varietates a 6 ad 12 me ad eamd[em] plantam revocare, quae sit levi involucro, dentato, v[ersus] plantam demum 13. Quare mihi crimen adfingis, quod non commisi?

P. 106. Desidero genera hypothetica, quae ego fecerim. An Aretiam glandulas coronarum non separat[e][e] : MS1 [read] glandulae
coronarum non separant
a primula?

P. 111. Epilobium[f][f] : MS1 Epilobium
<[angus-]>
f[oliis] integerrimis linearibus fasciculatis meum, p. 408, nihil habet commune cum illo valde vulgari, angustif[olio], glabro T[ournefortii]Tournefort de, Joseph Pitton
(1656-1708). French. Botanist and
explorer, professor of botany at Paris.
, nec eo retuli et petala omnibus fere sunt bifida, ut nomen non possint ingredi.

P. 115. “Ipse videat Hallerus, cur separet Chrysosplenium.” Quia planta apetala est, quales cum petalodeis invitissimus misceo in methodo mea. Quia calyx 4-fidus, fructus unilocularis a saxifragia [sic] eam pl[antam][g][g] : MS1 [added above the line] abunde separant. Et Tu nosti optime haec omnia valde arbitraria esse.

P. 132. Lychnis sylv[estris] alba nimis rubrae similis est omni modo eademque perinde dioica, ut et in horto vidi, ubi colo, et ruri. Nam hic minime rara est.

P. 135. Alsinem mediam millies, credo, vidi nunquam pluribus quam 5 staminibus. Deinde habet tubas 3. Tua v[ero] n. 370 habet tubas 5, etc.

P. 168. Nomen meum utcunque bonum meae plantae optimum est. Tuam a mea differre videri flore luteo. An ego dissimulavi, p. 326?[4]

P. 182.3. Fructus diversissimus Alectorolophi genus separat sufficienter et necessario, ut specierum numerus sublevetur et nominum longitudo. Pediculares enim ad 30 nunc possideo.

P. 186. Sed ego a[nno] 1728 plus quam 100 milliarium Germanicorum Alpino itinere cum I[ohanne] G[esnero] hanc plantam legi[h][h] : MS1 <vidi> legi neque Tibi tamen neque mihi primum notam.[5] Discrimen adlegavi abunde. Caerulea diversissima est ab utraque spica brevi, densa, bracteis, ut vocas, multo magis laciniatis, latioribus, coloratis.

P. 186. Bartsia. Prius certe a[nno] 1737 hanc pl[antam] separavi a Pedicularibus neque serius quam Tu totum genus Bartschiae condidisti. Mallem pl[antam] Alpinam et StaehelinoStähelin, Benedikt
(1695-1750). Swiss. Botanist. Studied
under Sébastien Vaillant and
Albrecht von Haller, professor of
physics in Basle.
et mihi dicasses[i][i] : MS1 <unde di-> dicasses quam Africanas raras, quibuscum nulla nobis adfinitas.

P. 203. Cardamina Tua tetrandra sex habent stamina. Nemo potest falli, qui plura invenit; qui pauciora potest. Repete exemplum.

P. 241. Alpinam plantam non facile crederem maritimam esse.[6]

P. 243. Gnaphalia duo, quae videris malle conjuncta, non sexu solum, sed calore, folio, habitu, sunt diversissima.

P. 265. Orchis muscae[j][j] : MS1 [read] muscam a[utem] referens hic non valde rara habet sex petala, etsi 2 filiformia, angusta sint. Tu vide annon omnis gen[eris] Orchidea ad 2 genera debeat revocari, Orchidem et Helleborinen? Calcaris defectus non plus hic potest quam in Antirrhino et perinde per gradus decrescit.

P. 303. Non video, quid Rhodiolam separet ab Anacampserote, hanc a sedo. Sexum non sufficere Lapatha, Lychnides, tot aliae docent.

P. 324. Bryum alp[inum] non est varietas. Folio longiori, habitu in Alpibus ipsis multo laetiori, differt.

P. 391. Embolus Tuus est manifestiss[imus] Embolus meus primus, quem dixi villo esse subfusco; non alter,[k][k] : MS1 <primus> alter qui egregie a priori differt.

P. 392. Lathyrus Narbonensis foliis multo magis ovatis est quam Urtica,[l][l] : MS1 <et tot alia>
Chamaenerion
Chamaenerion et tot aliae, quas eo nomine insignivisti.

Plura addere facile mihi foret et demonstrare me, si nocendi inesset animus, Tibi molestum non magno labore fore. Sed absit a me tristis ea necessitas! Privatim et Tibi, ut boni Viri est, haec loquor,[m][m] : MS1 <dico> loquor ut possis, si amicus Tibi est, ut spero, animus, eum ea occasione, quae placuerit, demonstrare.[n][n] : MS1 [twice, added also above
the line
]
Si omnino vero me immeritum deprimere Tibi constitutum est, etiam tunc meis moribus usum me fuisse gaudebo et declinasse omnem inimicitiarum occasionem, quamdiu licuit.[o][o] : MS1 [added in the margin] Caeterum semina, quae desiderasti, tantum haec adfuerunt, quae mitto. Solanum spinosum absque fructu floruit et Commelina lutea nimis serpit radicibus neque fructus[p][p] : MS1 <floribus> fructus fere perficit. Reddet autem clarissimus RoséniusRosenblad, Eberhard
(1714-1796). Swedish. Born
Rosén, ennobled Rosenblad in
1770, brother of Nils Rosén von
Rosenstein. Professor of medicine at
Lund in 1744.
, qui per annum fere nobiscum vixit.

Vale interim et res Tuas feliciter age!

Die VIII april[is] 1746.

[address] A Monsieur / Monsieur Linnaeus / Professeur en Botanique / trez celebre / a Upsal.

upSUMMARY

Albrecht von Haller has got Linnaeus’s Flora Svecica. He is disappointed to see himself bitterly refuted, which hardly suits their friendship. Linnaeus gratifies his enemies when he thus attacks his friends. Haller has often defended Linnaeus.

He refutes Linnaeus’s remarks in Flora Svecica on the following plants:

p. 43 He established an affinity between Aparine and Galium basing it on intermediate species.

p. 62-63 He distinguished Campanula uniflora in Iter Helveticum.

p. 105 He described Lapathum aquaticum with a smooth involucrum, not toothed. He gave an account of the varieties.

p. 106 The genuses of Aretia and Primula are discussed.

p. 111 His Epilobium foliis integerrimis linearibus fasciculatis has nothing in common with angustifolium glabrum (Tournefort), a fact which he never stated.

p. 115 The genuses of Chrysosplenium and Saxifraga are discussed.

p. 132 Lychnis sylvestris alba is very much allied to the red. Both are dioecious.

p. 135 In Alsine media he has never seen more than five stamens.

p. 168 His name [Ranunculus caule aphyllo unifloro, foliis rotundis semitrifidis] is very good. Linnaeus’s plant differs through a yellow flower.

p. 182-183 The widely different fruit distinguishes the genus of Haller’s Alectorolophus.

p. 186 In 1728 Haller together with Johannes Gesner collected Melampyrum sylvaticum. Therefore, it was first discovered neither by Linnaeus nor himself.

p. 186 Before 1737 Haller separated Bartsia from Pedicularis.

p. 203 Linnaeus’s tetrandrous Cardamine has six stamens.

p. 241 An Alpine plant [Artemisia rupestris] cannot easily be a maritime one.

p. 243 The two Gnaphalia, which Linnaeus wants to be united, differ in sex, colour, leaf and habitus.

p. 265 Orchis muscam referens is not very rare at Göttingen. It has six petals. Linnaeus should check if not all the Orchideous family ought not to be reduced to two genera.

p. 303 The relationship between Rhodiola, Anacampseros and Sedum is discussed.

p. 324 His Bryum alpinum viridissimum is not a variety.

p. 391 Linnaeus’s Embolus is evidently Haller’s first species and not his second.

p. 392 The leaves of the Narbonne Lathyrus are much more ovate than those of Urtica, some species of Chamaenerion or numerous other plants which Linnaeus has so defined.

Haller hopes that future enmity can be avoided. Solanum spinosum flowered without fruit. Commelina lutea usually produces no seeds.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (LS, VI, 184-185). [1] [2] [3]

upEDITIONS

1. "[12 Letters from Albrecht von Haller]" (1792), p. 110-111 .
2. A selection (1821), vol. 2, p. 381-389   p.381  p.382  p.383  p.384  p.385  p.386  p.387  p.388  p.389.

upTEXTUAL NOTES

a.
MS1 <Tu> Tecum
b.
MS1 <Vide> Crede
c.
MS1 [added in the margin]
d.
MS1 [added above the line]
e.
MS1 [read] glandulae coronarum non separant
f.
MS1 Epilobium <[angus-]>
g.
MS1 [added above the line]
h.
MS1 <vidi> legi
i.
MS1 <unde di-> dicasses
j.
MS1 [read] muscam
k.
MS1 <primus> alter
l.
MS1 <et tot alia> Chamaenerion
m.
MS1 <dico> loquor
n.
MS1 [twice, added also above the line]
o.
MS1 [added in the margin]
p.
MS1 <floribus> fructus

upEXPLANATORY NOTES

1.
2.
By Linnaeus’s enemies Albrecht von Haller might refer to Johann Jakob DilleniusDillenius, Johann Jacob
(1684-1747). German/British. Studied at
Giessen. Sherardian professor of botany
at Oxford. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, Lorenz HeisterHeister, Lorenz (1683-1758).
German. Anatomist and surgeon,
considered the father of German surgery.
Professor of anatomy and surgery in
1720, of theoretical medicine and botany
at Helmstädt in 1730. He rejected
Linnaeus’s sexual system. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
, Christian Gottlieb LudwigLudwig, Christian Gottlieb
(1709-1773). German. Physician.
Professor of medicine in Leipzig. One of
Linnaeus’s early opponents.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
and Johann Georg SiegesbeckSiegesbeck, Johann Georg
(1686-1755). German. Prussian botanist,
doctor of medicine at Wittenberg in
1716, physician and director of the
botanical garden at St Petersburg
1735-1747. One of the most bitter
opponents of Linnaeus’s sexual system.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
(see these correspondences).
3.
4.
5.
In 1728 Haller and his friend Johannes Gesner made a botanical journey to the Swiss Alps, which inspired Haller to his best known poem, Die Alpen.
6.