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Link: • Pehr Kalm to Carl Linnaeus, 4 April 1748 n.s.
Dated 24 Martii, 1748. Sent from London (Great Britain) to Uppsala (Sweden). Written in Swedish.


Soon after his arrival in London Pehr KalmKalm, Pehr (1716-1779).
Swedish. Botanist and traveller,
professor of natural history at
Åbo. Disciple of Linnaeus.
Travelled in North America 1748-1751.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
wrote to Linnaeus [Kalm to Linnaeus, 20 February 1748Letter L0881 informing him about the succesful trip over the sea. Kalm has now spent one and a half months in England, partly in London, partly in the country where the air is healthier. His companion Lars JungströmJungström, Lars Swedish.
Gardener. Accompanied Pehr Kalm as his
assitant on Kalm´s voyage to North
America. After his retun to Sweden in
1751 he was appointed a gardener at the
castle of Ekolsund, planting American
fell seriously ill after only a week. Thanks to good medical care he has now recovered. Kalm has not taken contact with the English scientists to whom Linnaeus has written letters of recommendation. His knowledge of English is still too poor to make a meeting worthwhile. Philip MillerMiller, Philip (1691-1771).
British. Gardener of the Chelsea Physic
Garden. Corresponded with many
botanists. His rich herbarium was sold
to Joseph Banks. Correspondent of
is on a journey. Later Kalm will see them regularly. Kalm has collected a lot of seeds which he will send back to Linnaeus and Sten Carl BielkeBielke, Sten Carl (1709-1753).
Swedish. Baron, government official,
patron of science, and naturalist. One
of the founders of the Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences. Private pupil of
Linnaeus. Close friend of Pehr Kalm,
whose voyage to America he supported
financially. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
with Roland SchröderSchröder, Roland
(1713-1773). Swedish. Wholesaler and
foundry proprietor in Stockholm. Married
to Brita Maria Schröder.
who has been of great help. Linnaeus and Bielke can share these seeds between themselves as they wish, but Kalm hopes to have seeds or plants of them when he returns home. Abraham SpaldingSpalding, Abraham (1712-1782).
Swedish. Merchant, London, in
partnership with Gustaf Brander.
, recommended by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences [Kungliga Svenska VetenskapsakademienKungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien,
Swedish. The Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Founded
in 1739.
] has been extremely helpful during Kalm’s stay in England. He has introduced Kalm to a rich gentleman, a friend of Linnaeus’s and Bielke’s. His name is Richard WarnerWarner, Richard
(1711/1713?-1775). British. Classicist
and botanist. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
whose greatest interest is his garden where he keeps four greenhouses full of marvellous foreign plants. He is well educated, very nice and incredibly generous. Kalm receives all the seeds he can wish from him. If he has learnt English better he can stay there 2-3 months after his American expedition, he will certainly return home with an enormous collection of seeds and plants. People here are very generous, which was also Peter Arted’sArtedi, Peter (1705-1735).
Swedish. Ichtyologist. Close friend of
impression, according to Linnaeus’s “Vita Petri Artedi”Linnaeus, Carl “Vita Petri
Artedi descripta a Carolo Linnaeo. Dabam
Lugduni Batavorum 1738 Mart. 10”, in
Artedi, Ichthyologia sive opera omnia
de piscibus, scilicet: Bibliotheca
ichtyologia. Philosophia ichtyologica.
Genera piscium. Synonymia specierum.
Descriptiones specierum. Omnia in hoc
genere perfectiora, quam antea ulla.
Posthuma vindicavit, recognovit,
coaptavit & edidit Carolus
(Leiden 1738), I-XI.
. Kalm wants to inform Linnaeus of his plans, wishes, and demands for the future: 1. Kalm wants to give all his collections to the Academy of Åbo. Linnaeus has often promised him lots of minerals, plants, seeds etc. of which he has duplicates. When Kalm returns home, he wants Linnaeus first to fulfill this promise before he shows or gives away anything of his collection. The same condition applies to Bielke. Kalm is now a professor in Åbo, in his country, where he has his relatives and friends. Therefore, he wants to live in Finland. However, his concern for his plants makes him hesitate. In England many plants survive the whole winter outside, whereas in Uppsala the same plants would die in the cold. It would be better to keep them at the University of Lund where the climate is almost as in England. Here they could adapt to the Swedish climate. From Lund they could gradually be taken to Uppsala. A problem is that the University Botanical Garden in Lund is not well kept. The professor in charge is probably more interested in his salary than the garden itself. The plants notice this, and, neglected they languish and die. Olof RudbeckRudbeck, Olof (1660-1740).
Swedish. Professor of medicine,
botanist, ornithologist, travelled in
Lapland. Linnaeus’s teacher.
[Kalm presumably means Lars RobergRoberg, Lars (1664-1742).
Swedish. Physician and naturalist.
Professor of medicine at Uppsala.
Founder of the first university
hospital. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, although he was not directly involved in the study of botany] is a good example of this phenomenon. Kalm would not be popular in Lund among the envious professors there, so he would like somebody else to undertake this task, a person with an ardent interest in botany. If this is impossible, he will do it but under no circumstances as a professor of medicine, because he hates the idea of practicing medicine and because there is so much envy in that profession. 2. Kalm will not be able to return from America in 1749, and probably not until June or July 1750. Then there will be time to sow and plant before winter. 3.Kalm beseeches Linnaeus to take good care of Jungström’s interests during his absence. He works very hard, and his health has suffered. Kalm sends his regards to Linnaeus’s wife [Sara Elisabet MoraeaMoraea, Sara Elisabet
(1716-1806). Swedish. Linnaeus’s wife.
Daughter of Johan Moraeus and Elisabet
Hansdotter Moraea. Mother of Carl
Linnaeus the Younger and of Elisabeth
Christina, Louisa, Sara Christina and
Sophia Linnaea.
], Olof CelsiusCelsius, Olof (1670-1756).
Swedish. Orientalist and theologian,
professor at Uppsala. Botanist and plant
collector, benefactor of Linnaeus.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, Samuel KlingenstjernaKlingenstierna, Samuel
(1698-1765). Swedish. Physicist and
mathematician, professor of experimental
physics at Uppsala. Correspondent of
, Daniel SolanderSolander, Daniel (1707-1786).
Swedish. Professor of Law, Uppsala.
Married to Anna Margareta Solander.
Brother of Carl Solander and uncle to
Daniel Solander. Correspondent of
, Olof CelsiusCelsius, Olof (1716-1794).
Swedish. Bishop, historian, politician.
, Johan IhreIhre, Johan (1707-1780).
Swedish. Philologist. Professor of Latin
and later of eloquence and political
science at Uppsala.
, Olof Petrus HiorterHiorter, Olof Petrus
(1696-1750). Swedish. Professor of
astronomy at Uppsala 1732-1737.
, Petrus AlmAlm, Petrus (1711-1769).
Swedish. Headmaster at a school in
Uppsala, Vicar of Tuna and Stafby.
Brother of Erik Alm.
and Erik AlmAlm, Erik (1713-1765).
Swedish. Clergyman. Household chaplan at
Bielke´s mother, Ursula Kristina
Bielke, born Törne. Thereafter
vicar of Skepptuna. Brother of Petrus
, Sven BaelterBaelter, Sven (1713-1760).
Swedish. Clergyman. Cathedral dean of
Växjö. Travelled in Russia.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, and all his friends and supporters. P.S. 1 Linnaeus has complained of Peter CollinsonCollinson, Peter (1694-1768).
British. Merchant and amateur naturalist
in London, corresponded with many
scientists. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
sending bad seeds of Collinsonia. Kalm advises Linnaeus to read Miller’s Dictionary [Kalm refers presumably to the second edition of The Gardener’s Dictionary Miller, Philip The Gardener's
2nd edition (London,
, published in eight editions with several additions and abridgements in Miller’s lifetime; the third edition was published in 1748, The Gardeners DictionaryMiller, Philip The Gardeners
Dictionary : Containing the methods of
cultivating and improving the kitchen,
fruit, and flower-garden, as also the
physic-garden, wilderness, conservatory,
and vineyard. In which likewise are
included the practical parts of
husbandry; and the method of making and
preserving wines, according to the
practice of foreign vignerons. Abridged
from the two volumes in folio, by the
author, Philip Miller, F.R.S. gardener
to the Worshipful Company of
Apothecaries, at their botanic garden,
in Chelsea. In three volumes
] under the title of Collinsonia. Kalm sends all kinds of seeds to Linnaeus; some of them may not be new to Linnaeus but some were sent to Miller last autumn from America. Many of them have been collected by Kalm in Warner’s garden. Warner and Miller are close friends. Warner will introduce Kalm to Miller. Therefore, Kalm intends to find quarters near the Chelsea Physic Garden so he can visit him often. P.S. 2 Kalm encloses letters to his friends in Finland and asks Linnaeus to forward them. He will write to Linnaeus when the departure for America is imminent. Nobody knows where John MitchellMitchell, John (1711-1768).
British/American. Physician and
botanist. Born in Virginia. After
studies in medicine at the University of
Edinburgh he returned to Virginia as a
physician, but left America for London
in 1746. Famous for his map of eastern
North-America, known as the Mitchell
Map, first published in 1755.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.


a. original holograph (LS, VIII, 16-17). [1] [2] [3]


1. Bref och skrifvelser (1922), vol. I:8, p. 21-25   p.21  p.22  p.23  p.24  p.25.
2. "Richard Warner as viewed by Kalm" (1924), p. 248-249 .