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C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L1352 • Carl Linnaeus to Bernard de Jussieu, 1751 n.s.
Dated . Sent from Uppsala (Sweden) to Paris (France). Written in Latin.

Botanico Summo,
D[OMINO] D[OCTORI] BERNH[ARDO] de JUSSIEU,
Benefactori summo,
S[alutem] pl[urimam] d[icit]
Car[olus] L[innaeus].

Misisti ad me primo vere, pro amicitia Tua in me maxima, egregium thesaurum seminum rariorum, recentiorum et selectissimorum, pro quibus grates numquam sufficientes rependere valeo; ut autem intelligas, quomodo messis mea successerit, hanc rationem Tibi reddam.

Progerminarunt mihi e Tuis sequentes plantae:

Fagonia; sed quae numquam apud me semina tulit, licet aliquoties floruerit.

Chicorium creticum spinosum. Egregie crescit; proximo florebit die.

Coris caerulea floruit.

Chamaepithys fol. serratis floruit.

Frankenia marit. 4-folia. Egregie floruit nondum.

Asperula verticillata luteola. Eximia planta numquam mihi visa egregie floruit; an Sherardia?

Centaurium capite pini enatum, sed multoties antea et semper hyeme periit.

Sinapi siliquis ad ramos adpressis. Myagrum.

Eruca hispanica sativae similis. Habui hanc unicam antea.

Astragalus aegyptius. Floruit et semina dedit.

Absinthium maderaspatanum: rarissima planta adhuc floret.

Dodonaea. Plurimae plantae nobis enatae sunt; quot, quaeso, ipsi stamina? forte Ptelea.

Nagacpu Hort. Mal. &c. Blattaria Zeylanica Hort. Amstel. Floruit sed non dedit semina; est absolute Pentapetis species.

Adansonia s[ive] Bahobab. Retinebo nomen; utinam scirem characterem!

Sophora tomentosa. Crescit bene.

Licium e Sina. Crescit.

Solanum foliis quernis. Nondum floruit.

Echinopus. Propediem florebit.

Bidens calyce oblongo. Mira planta, floret.

Mimosa e Senegal. Una pl[anta] excrevit.

Poinciana. Pulchre crescit, sed semper hyeme moritur.

Psoralea corylifolia. Crescit.

Lobelia Act. Ups. &c. Lobelia antisiphilitica, sed tenerae adhuc.

Bocconia. Unica planta egregie crescit.

Cestrum. Unica planta enata.

Nicotiana calyce inaequali. Profecto stupendae raritatis planta. Floruit; non semina dedit.

Nicotiana tubo praelongo. Floruit et semina dedit pulcherrima.

Lycopersicum pimpinella sanguis. fol. Floret sed non dat fructum; racemi bini.

Lycopersicum fructu Cerasi rubro. Dedit fructum.

Abutilon lavaterae fr. cristato. Dedit fructus.

Malva capsula seminis bidentata; rarior planta. Semina dedit.

Malva ribesis folio fl. parvo; rarissima planta. Semina dedit.

Alkekengi fl. violaceo. Eximia planta. Vera Physalis.

Oenothera fr. brevi tetragono, unico semine. Certe novi generis. Floret.

Tot totidem plantis rarissimis auxisti hortum nostrum; hisce plantis me lautissime excepisti; excitasti; vires animumque infudisti.

Inter eas, quae non germinarunt, maxime doleo et defleo sequentes:

Digitalis acanthoides
Alsine lotoides
Digitalis ferruginea
Coldenia (sedvixerat)
Dalechampia
Triumfetta
Camphorata
Gloriosa
Genipa
Achyra nthes lanata
Cephalanthus indicus
Browallia pernana
Carica
Bauhinia
Pongati
Portulaccae affinis
Persicaria Sinensis.

Si apud Te succreverit Hottonia Burmanni, quaeso, mittas ad me in literis plantulam et simul dicas, ad quod genus referatur; examinavi quidem olim plantam siccam cum Burmanno, at specimen antiquum ita exsoletum erat, ut nihil certi inde elici potuerit.

Quaeso, dicas mihi, quot semina Alsine lotoides habeat. An 15?

Hac aestate exstruxi vivarium in Horto Academico pro avibus et animalibus.

Leptostachya Mitchell s[ive] Verbena floribus reflexis Gron. Virg. et absolute novi generis planta floret.

Plantae Catesb. Carol. 2. p. 28 & Pluk. t. 161. f. 3. sunt absolute ejusdem generis novi. Character consistit in corolla cyathiformi, quae extus habet 10 cornicula in orbem posita.

Est mons per horam unicam ab urbe altus et amplus; in hoc monte ante hos annos serui plurima semina plantarum Sibiricarum, quae nunc ibi sylvestres factae, egregie luxuriant et se multiplicant, uti nostrates et jura civium Florae Suecicae sibi expetunt.

Impatienter exspecto reditum desideratissimi fratris Tui, de quo audivi, quod sit in itinere constitutus, quod secum habeat plantarum thesaurum stupendum exsiccatum. Quaeso, Patrone optime, pro me apud eum intercede, ut aliquot mihi det plantas, quas in decuplo habeat; more receptum apud omnes nationes est, quod divites et opulentes eleemosynas dent clamantibus pauperibus. Utinam redeat brevi, felix, sanus et incolumis!

Discipulus meus Kalmius rediit praeterita aestate dives plantarum Canadensium et Pensylvanicarum; alter Loefling accessit ad Hispanos. Tertius Hasselquist, redux ex Aegypto & Palaestina, adhuc in Cypro haeret.

Kalmii plantas extricare quotidie occupor. Genera inde plura nova reportavi, quae nunc imprimuntur, et ad Te propediem mittam per Legatum vestrum; videbis inter ea varia forte minus trita; Kalmius interea quotidie occupatur in conscribenda flora Canadensi, quae erit satis dives; addet loca natalia et usum tam medicum quam oeconomicum nec non descriptiones rariorum.

Loeflingius occupatissimus est in indagando animalcula marina, Polypos et quae Coralla constituunt; nec non in Muscorum notitia versatissimus est.

Observavi ante aliquot dies in staminibus Ocymi versus basim dentem singularem, qui constituit characterem essentialem, et praesens est non modo in vulgari Ocymo sed et in Zeylanico.

Totam aestatem debui transegisse apud Clementissimam Reginam nostram redigendo in ordinem Museum ejus, quod habet selectissimum, nullis parcens sumtibus modo acquirat rariora. Conchas & Cochleas ejus omnes descripsi; ad genera subalterna reduxi; differentias specificas imposui; varietates speciebus subjunxi, synonyma e Rumpfio, Bonano, Dargenvillo, Gualtero imposui et sic in his puto me aliquid praestitisse, quod antea factum non fuit.

Quo magis istud problema volvo, de plantis hybridis s[ive] novis plantarum speciebus ortis ex diversis parentibus, eo magis in ista cogitatione confirmor; nequit hoc latere iis, qui probe plantas examinant, praesertim iis qui hortos possident academicos. Utinam etiam Tu animum hisce impendere velles! Sunt nobis plantae, de quibus non conveniunt botanici, utrum species sint diversae vel non; varietates non facile alias dicimus, quam quae colore, odore, sapore, magnitudine, monstruositate solius individui differunt, et quae a loco, terra, sole, ventis &c. caussari possunt. Sed sunt et aliae caussae occultae; sunt aliae varietates constantes non mutabiles, nec restituendae mutato loco et caelo. Confer sequentes:

Urtica pilulifera romana — et altera Parietariae foliis.

Cyanus orientalis luteus — et Cyanus orient., purpureus, albus.
Differunt calyce, radio, semine. Conveniunt toto habitu.

Poterium Pimp[inella] sanguisorba — & Pimpinella agrimonioides.

Catananche coerulea — & lutea.

Crista galli mas — & foemina.

Acanthus spinosus — & mollis.

Saponaria vulgaris — Saponaria anglica.

Hemerocallis lutea — & fulva.

Verbascum.

Dipsacus vulgaris — Dipsacus perfoliatus.

Insuper Solana Africana, Solana Europae annua, Quercus Virginica, Asteres et aliae innumerae, quas dabo in dissertatione de plantis hybridis, ubi hoc non uti evictum proponam, sed ad alios excitandum proponam.

Hisce diebus prodiit apud Salvium alter tomus Amoenitatum mearum Academicarum, in qua habentur dissertationes sequentes:

Oeconomia naturae,      Taenia,      Sapor medicamentorum,

Lignum Colubrinum,      Senega,      Plantae Camschatcenses,

Semina muscorum,      Splachnum,      Officinalia animalia,

Generatio calculi,      Gemmae arborum,      Pan Suecicus.

In Actis Upsaliensibus habentur:
Usus Electrisationis in Rheumatismo
Hasselquist. descr. Mimosae Africanae
Linnaei Scabiosa corollulis quadrifidis, foliis pinnatifidis, lobis lateralibus erectiusculis, Penthorum
Hasselquist Camelopardalis descriptio
Mus aegyptius bipes
Turdus solitarius
Fulica
Vipera vera officinarum
Coluber cornutus
Anguis Cerastes
Lacerta scincus
Octopodia sepiae species
Linnaei Cyprinus pinnae ani radiis XI
Gronovii pisces duo: Scomber & Labrax
Loefling Monoculus cauda foliacea plana
Colden, Continuatio pl. Noveboracensium descriptionis, dein Astronomica, Meteorologica, Antiquaria, vita A[ndreae] Celsii.

Ego nunc a die in vesperam ultimam manum addo Museo Reginae exscribendo, sed praecipue species plantarum conscribendo et enumerando quotquot novi omnes cum differentia specifica, synonymo, loco, sub suis generibus. Paucas novi, sed tamen aliquas.

Silent jam omnes Botanici in Anglia, Belgio, Germania, Russia. Tu vitam et animam Gallis das.

Audio Italos varios Florentiis adhuc negare, quod animalia caussent corallia; de hoc amplius apud me dubium non est; vidi varios lapides, qui id absolute evincunt, et quod majus est omnibus, Tu lynceus haec propriis vidisti oculis; Loeflingius pulchre descripsit vermes in Escharae poris habitantes.

An habeas ullas observationes circa Titanokeratophyta Boerhaavi s[ive] Rete & flabellum Veneris dictum, et quo modo hoc conficiatur? Crustam tartaream a vermibus oriri facile intelligo; et dicas mihi, quomodo substantia cornea.

D[omini] Buffoni opera posteriora expecto avide; ille incipit a Cane et Equo in naturali methodo. Hoc experimentum sufficit. Vellem modo videre practicum; vidi theoreticum.

Devota mea officia dicas D[omino] Patri Laserre; ille optime servavit oleum, cujus lucerna adhuc lucet proprio oleo. Salutes, quaeso, itidem suavissimam dulcissimamque sponsam D[omina]m Bassaport; illa nondum mihi dedit foetum, tamdiu promissum, neque ingenii, neque manus; si posset mihi pingere parvum B[ernhardum] Jussieu in quarto, quem possem Botanicis meis interserere in Musei pariete, mihi daret filium gratissimum.

Scriberem ego saepius, ni metuerem, quod meae litterae Tibi impensas facerent. Tu poteris, ut audio, ad me scribere absque impensis; quaeso, millies facias hoc saepius; nullius mortalis literae mihi gratiores, instructivae magis nullae, et, si scribas sub involucro ad Societ[atem] scient[iarum] Upsaliae, habebo omnes literas gratis; posses tunc interserere plantulam exsiccatam saepius. Si Tu posses dicere mihi rationem, qui ego mitterem absque Tuis impensis, ego idem facerem saepius. Non possum oblivisci frustuli illius, quod olim misisti et nuper dixisti fuisse Phytolaccam. Sed quaenam, quaeso, et quomodo possint tam diversae conjungi in unum genus?

Quid jam D[ominus] Reaumur? Quid D[ominus] Guettardus?

Studiosus quidam, informator filii mei, qui olim detexit insectum, quod plodit ano et alterum, quod cribrat pollinem antherarum, nunc exclusit istud insectum, quod apud nos caussat spicas albas effoetas copiosissimas in agris secalinis; evadit Phalaena; unius ejusmodi vermis intrat saepe plurimos culmos et infinitam noxam adfert colonis.

Sed manum de Tabula. Dies mihi deficeret, priusquam desiderium Tecum loquendi. Devota officia dicas venerando fratri Tuo, artis nostrae seniori. Det ipsi Deus T[er] O[ptimus] tranquillam viridemque senectam. Cum redierit junior frater, quaeso, ipsi dicas mox mea officia et vota pro ejus felicitate.

A Monsieur
Mons[ieu]r Bernh[ard] de Jussieu
Professeur en Botanique
Membre l’academie des sciences
Paris

upSUMMARY

Linnaeus reports on the plants that have grown from the seeds received from Bernard du JussieuJussieu, Bernard de
(1699-1777). French. Professor of
botany, brother of Antoine and Joseph de
Jussieu. Demonstrator at the Jardin des
plantes. Sébastien Vaillant’s
successor. Uncle of Antoine Laurent de
Jussieu. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
with his letter [Jussieu to Linnaeus, 19 February 1751Letter L1236], which Linnaeus thanked for [Linnaeus to Jussieu, 28 March 1751Letter L1259]. Several have not germinated, but many are reported to have flowered and even produced seeds. Of Bocconia, only one plant grows, but it is a good one.

Linnaeus has comments and questions on some of the plants.

Linnaeus longs for the return of Jussieu’s brother [Joseph de JussieuJussieu, Joseph de (1704-1779).
French. Botanist, mathematician,
explorer. Member of the French
expedition in South America 1735.
Brother of Antoine and Bernard de
Jussieu. Uncle of Antoine Laurent de
Jussieu.
] and repeats his request for duplicates from his collections.

Pehr KalmKalm, Pehr (1716-1779).
Swedish. Botanist and traveller,
professor of natural history at
Åbo. Disciple of Linnaeus.
Travelled in North America 1748-1751.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
is back with plants from Canada and Pennsylvania, Pehr LöflingLöfling, Pehr (1729-1756).
Swedish. Botanist and explorer. Studied
under Linnaeus. Went to Spain in 1751
and took part in the Spanish expedition
to Venezuela in 1754, where he died.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
is in Spain, and Fredrik HasselquistHasselquist, Fredrik
(1722-1752). Swedish. Physician and
naturalist, explorer. Studied under
Linnaeus and Lars Roberg 1741-1749. Went
to Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Cyprus,
Rhodes and the island of Chios. Died
near Smyrna. Son of Magnus and Helena
Maria Hasselquist, brother of Andreas
Hasselquist. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
is in Cyprus.

Linnaeus are busy working on Kalm’s collections, the findings of which will be printed [Linnaeus refers to Kalm’s En resa til Norra AmericaKalm, Pehr En resa til Norra
America, på Kongl. Swenska
Wetenskaps Academiens befattning, och
publici kostnad
, I-III (Stockholm
1753-1761). Soulsby no. 2586a.
] and Kalm is compiling a Canadian flora which will be rich, with notes on medical and economic usage and descriptions of rare species.

Löfling studies marine fauna.

All summer, Linnaeus has been arranging the Queen’s [Lovisa UlrikaLovisa Ulrika, (1720-1782).
Swedish. Queen of Sweden 1751-1771.
Married to Adolf Fredrik. Mother of
Gustav III. Sister of Fredric II of
Prussia. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
] natural cabinet, which is very rich.

Linnaeus makes a short discussion on varieties versus hybrids and gives ten examples of species where that issue is very hard to decide on.

Lars SalviusSalvius, Lars (1706-1773).
Swedish. Printer, bookseller, publisher.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
has just published vol. II of the Amoenitates AcademicaeLinnaeus, Carl Amoenitates
academicae
, I-X (Stockholm
1749-1790). Soulsby no. 1280.
[vol. II was published in 1751] and the contents of that is listed:Specimen academicum de oeconomia naturaeLinnaeus, Carl Specimen
academicum de oeconomia naturae
,
diss., resp. I. J. Biberg (Uppsala
[1749]).
, Lignum ColubrinumLinnaeus, Carl Lignum
Colubrinum leviter delineatum
,
diss., resp. J. A. Darelius (Uppsala
[1749]).
, Semina MuscorumLinnaeus, Carl Semina
muscorum detecta
, diss., resp. P. J.
Bergius (Uppsala 1750). Soulsby no.
1596.
, De generatione calculiLinnaeus, Carl Disputatio
medica inauguralis de generatione
calculi
, diss., resp. J. O.
Hagström (Uppsala 1749).
, Specimen academicum de TaeniaLinnaeus, Carl Specimen
academicum de Taenia
, diss., resp.
G. Dubois (Uppsala [1748]).
, Radix SenegaLinnaeus, Carl Radix
Senega
, diss., resp. J. Kiernander
ad (Stockholm 1749).
, Dissertatio botanica sistens SplachnumLinnaeus, Carl Dissertatio
botanica sistens Splachnum
, diss.,
resp. L. Montin (Uppsala, 1750). Soulsby
no. 1589.
, Gemmae ArborumLinnaeus, Carl Gemmae
Arborum
, diss., resp. P.
Löfling (Uppsala 1749). Soulsby no.
1556.
, Pan SuecicusLinnaeus, Carl Pan
Suecicus
, diss., resp. N.L.
Hesselgren (Uppsala, 1749). Soulsby no.
1565.
, Dissertatio medica inauguralis, sistens Saporem medicamentorumLinnaeus, Carl Dissertatio
medica inauguralis, sistens Saporem
medicamentorum
, diss., resp. J.
Rudberg (Stockholm, 1751). Soulsby no.
1618.
, Plantae rariores CamschatcensesLinnaeus, Carl Plantae
rariores Camschatcenses
, diss.,
resp. J. P. Halenius (Stockholm, 1750).
Soulsby no. 1612.
].

The contents of the Acta of the Royal Society of Sciences at Uppsala [Kungliga Vetenskaps-Societeten i UppsalaKungliga Vetenskaps-Societeten i
Uppsala,
Swedish. The Royal
Society of Sciences at Uppsala was
founded in 1728.
] is briefly listed.

Linnaeus is finishing the publication on the Queen’s cabinet [Linnaeus refers to the Museum s:ae m:tis Ludovicae Ulricae reginaeLinnaeus, Carl Museum s:ae
m:tis Ludovicae Ulricae reginae

(Stockholm 1764). Soulsby no. 1095a.
, which was published in 1764].

In most of Europe, no botany is published, only in France.

Linnaeus adds that Italians do not understand that corals are due to animals, which is manifestly correct.

Linnaeus asks for Jussieu’s view on two other zoological works, one of them by Jean-Louis Leclerc, comte de BuffonBuffon, Jean-Louis Leclerc, comte de
(1707-1788). French.
.

Linnaeus sends greetings to LasserreLa Serre, French. Physician
and naturalist, Paris.
and Madeleine Françoise BasseporteLa Serre, French. Physician
and naturalist, Paris.
, whom he asks for a portrait of Jussieu to be displayed in Linnaeus’s museum. He also asks about René-Antoine Ferchault deRéaumur, René-Antoine
Ferchault de
(1683-1757). French.
Physicist and naturalist. His works
cover geometry, technology, mineralogy,
ornithology. His collections of natural
history objects, mineralogy etc. were
given to the Académie des
sciences after his death. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
and Jean Etienne GuettardGuettard, Jean Etienne
(1715-1786). French. Naturalist,
geologist and mineralogist. Director of
the museum of natural history objects of
the duke of Orléans. Best known
for his geological and mineralogical
studies of France. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
.

Linnaeus would write more often to Jussieu but he does not want to cause Jussieu undue expenses for mail. Linnaeus has no such difficulties, as he gets all letters addressed to the the Royal Society of Sciences at Uppsala free of charge. Jussieu can use that address also for letters with plant specimens in them.

Linnaeus reports on the findings of a young student [Daniel RolanderRolander, Daniel (1725-1793).
Swedish. Naturalist and explorer.
Studied at Uppsala University under
Linnaeus. Went to Surinam in 1755-1756.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
] who studies various harmful insects. He ends the letter with a regret that he can not spend a whole day talking to Jussieu and a wish that Jussieu may live long.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (ASP, Dossier biographique Linné). [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

upEDITIONS

1. Epistolæ Caroli a Linné ad Bernardum de Jussieu ineditæ (1854), p. 222-227   p.222  p.223  p.224  p.225  p.226  p.227.
2. Figures de savants (1938), vol. IV, p. 136-137 .