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C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L2034 • Carl Linnaeus to François Boissier de La Croix de Sauvages, 22 April 1756 n.s.
Dated 1756 d. 22 april.. Sent from Uppsala (Sweden) to Montpellier (France). Written in Latin.

SUMMO MEDICO,
D[omino] D[octori] FR[ANCISCO] SAUVAGESIO,
S[alutem p[lurimam] d[icit]
CAR[OLUS] LINNAEUS.

Quas, prae amicitia tua infucata, ad me mittebas litteras, 14 Januarii rite accepi. At distracto collegiis, lectionibus, examinibus, consistorialibus, quibus vos feliciter caretis, non licuit respondere.

Hyems fuit mitissima etiam apud nos, sed die 21 Martii incepit saevire cum intenso gelu, nive, &c. et in hunc usque diem continuat, quamvis Motacilla alba adveniebat ex australibus oris die 17 aprilis, eodem die quo Galanthus et Leucoium, nivem penetrantes, flores promebant.

Acta Acad[emiae] Parisinae nondum accepimus, sed exspectamus cum prima nave.

Laetabor maxime audire, quod lethales vapores suffocent electricitatem; quod ulterius dubitandum sit nescio. Subscribam mox et omnes sani mecum inventum tuum, in Physiologia datum, de spiritibus animalibus.

Plantam Guanabani s[ive] Mathiolo-ramulum non agnosco, nec credo esse aut Guanabanum aut Mathiolam. Erit procul dubio distinctum genus, sed flores non erant perfecti, ut quidquam de iis divinare licuerit.

Si tua Reaumurea sit data, meam suffocabo. Si tuam revocasti, tu meam propone ut tuam, quam tibi dudum obtuli. Non ego falcem in amici agrum immittam.

Accepi litteras nuper a Seguierio refertas rarissimis omnibus plantis Montis Baldi, a quibus summum animi oblectamentum hausi, et adhuc haurio.

Lycium vestrum debet habere baccam ovatam, luteo-rubram. Quaeso, ad D[ominum] Seguierium litteras mitte!

Nullas litteras a D[omini] Manetti habeo, ut nesciam, utrum sim inter ejus socios receptus, nisi quod ipse ad me scripsisti.

Accepi a D[omino] Lind librum de Scorbuto, sed longe aliter eum describit ac est apud nos vulgarissimus. Signa: gingivarum laxitas, lux faciei obscurata, appetitus depravatus, lassitudo major mane quam vesperi. Caussatur apud nostrates a cibo salso, cum absque motu diutius ingeratur.

Inoculatio variolarum fervide incepit institui apud nostrates. Sed mortuis duabus filiabus collegae mei D[omini] Rosen, fere sufflaminata fuit tota.

Donati libellum possideo, sed ejus 40 tabulae animalium marinorum maxime optarem in publico prodirent.

D[ominus] Holm, ad quem Holmiae scripsi, promisit se indicaturum, quando discedat, ut queam cum eo dissertatiunculas mittere. Systema nondum prodiit in prelum.

Iberidis Gallo-provincialis erat gratissima planta, pro qua millenas gratias refero.

Hemicrania multoties me excruciat. Unde hic morbus? An novisti medicinam, quaeso, communices.

Hemitriteus frequentissimus ab aliquot annis evasit morbus Upsaliae. Ab eo morbe restitui innumeros. Primis diebus dedi Ipecacuanham pro vomitu, dein infusum vinosum Chinae (non vero in substantia juvat cortex) et omni nocte Laudanum liquidum.

Brownii Historia Jamaicae nunc prodiit Londini, sed nondum accepi. Erit, quantum video, opus aestimatissimum.

Ellis de Corallinis, qui itidem Londini prodiit, accepi. Opusculum est stupendae industriae, ut de animalibus Corallii nullum ulterius dubium.

Observes, quaeso, quo die incipiat Sedum acre apud vos florere. Incipit enim apud nos ipso die solstitii aestivalis.

Si vacat, optarem etiam scire, quo die florere incipiant hoc anno apud vos Paeonia fl[ore] pleno, Paeonia flore simplici, Hemerocallis, Lilio-asphodelus, tam flavus quam fulvus, Sedum album, Scabiosa succisa, Colchicum autumnale. Inservit enim hoc ad Calendarium Florae, quod mittam, modo Dom[inus] Holm, ut promiserat, dicat, quando abiturus sit.

Miratus sum inter plantas Veronenses Cyperum Italicum, in India orientali frequentem, Andropogon alopecuroidem et Phalaridem oryzoidem ex America reperiri in Italia cum Oryza, procul dubio eo delata cum semine Oryzae, uti multae apud nos indigenae factae sunt ex seminibus cum frumento satae, ab exteris regionibus adportatae.

Misit etiam D[ominus] Seguier Geranium argenteum, Salviniam, Comaroidem, Arenariam Bavaricam, rarissimas omnino plantas.

Burmannus, qui edit plantarum icones Plumerii, ad me jam misit ultra 80 tabulas, quae continent circiter 100 species. Laetor, quod opus prodeat, quod tamdiu delituerat. Emit ille has tabulas pictas, distributa biblioteca Boerhavii. Has figuras, procurante Sherardo promovente Vaillantio pingente Obrieto, sibi aequisivit Boerhaavius.

D[ominus] Zian, successor Halleri, meditatur Historiam Salviae, et Hallerus ipse totus in Orchidibus est.

Floram Palaestinam in dissertatione academica edidi.

Stercus columbarum, quod in Sacra Scriptura, urgente annona, fertur charo pretio divenditum fuisse. Nullus philologorum extricavit, quod mihi videtur fuisse Ornithogali umbellati radices.

Annon Synocha Hungarica deberet ad Amphimerinas referri, cum exacerbetur omni vespera?

Febris lyngodes, veterum Nolphoc, a phlogosi diaphragmatis, anne Synochus singultuosus dicendus vel an ad Paraphrenesin?

An, et quando prodeant Classes morborum, cum speciebus eorumdem? Quaeso, haec scribas!

Dies noctesque consumo in editionem novam Systematis Naturae, ut inseram omnia animalia mihi nota.

Durius tempus vernale non habuimus ab eo tempore, quo ego Upsaliam inhabitavi, ut de aestate fere desperem.

Marrubium Alysson habui ex Anglia; virent plantae. Semina certo obtinebo hac aestate, et mittam.

Plures iterum enascuntur a divinis tuis seminibus, praeterito anno missis, et quidem varia, quae primo anno non germinarunt. Omnes tui Cisti perdurarunt in hybernaculo hyemem, et promittunt mihi gratam aestatem suis floribus.

Inclusas, quaeso, litteras mittas ad D[ominum] Seguierium non procul a te habitantem. Nescio vero ubi.

Instituta apud nos fuere experimenta cum Spigelia anthelmica contra vermes, idque felicissimo cum eventu.

Gronovius diu fuit valetudinarius. Cliffortius adhuc vivit, et a me petiit alteram editionem Horti Cliffortiani.

Nondum prelo subjecta est Kalmii Flora Canadensis. A Loeflingio per annum nullas litteras habui.

Fertur alterum discipulum Rolandrum, egregium insectologum, fatis cesisse in Surinami.

Te servet D[ominus] T[er] O[ptimus] in seros annos, in gloriam orbis medici.

Dabam Upsaliae 1756, D[ie] 22 April[is].

Summo Medico D[omino] Fr[ançois] de Sauvages
Monspelii.

upSUMMARY

Linnaeus thanks François Boissier de La Croix de SauvagesSauvages, François Boissier de
La Croix de
(1706-1767). French.
Botanist and clergyman and physician,
professor in medicine at Montpellier.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
for his letter of 14 January [Sauvages to Linnaeus, 14 Janury 1756Letter L2001]. Excessive work has prevented him from replying earlier.

The winter had been very mild up to 21 March when there was severe cold and snow. This weather still persists. Braving this climate, the Motacilla alba [White wagtail] arrived on 17 April, the same day as Galanthus and Leucoium looked up through the snow.

He has not yet received the Acta acad. from Paris [Linnaeus means the transactions of the Académie royale des sciences, ParisAcadémie royale des sciences,
Paris,
French. The French
Académie des sciences was founded
in 1666 and became a royal academy in
1699. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, Memoires de mathematiques et de physique], but expects it to come with the next ship.

Linnaeus is pleased to hear that lethal vapeurs quench electricity. Henceforth there should be no doubt about that. Linnaeus, and all sensible people will soon support Sauvages’s result presented in Physiologià [Linnaeus refers to Physiologiae mechanicae elementaSauvages, François Boissier de
La Croix de
Physiologiae
mechanicae elementa
(Avignon &
Amsterdam 1755).
].

Linnaeus is hesitant about Guanabanum or Mathiolo-ramulus; he does not believe that it is Guanabanum or Mathiola but a distinct genus. However, a safe analysis could not be made because of the poor condition of the flowers.

If Sauvages’s Reaumurea has been approved, Linnaeus will withdraw his, if Sauvages has redrawn his, Linnaeus offers him his, as he has already done. He does not want to use my scythe in a friend’s field.

Linnaeus has received a letter from Jean François SéguierSéguier, Jean François
(1703-1784). French. Antiquarian
and botanist, Nimes. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
[Séguier to Linnaeus, 23 June 1755Letter L1918] full of very rare plants from the Mons Baldus, which has given Linnaeus great pleasure.

Linnaeus points out that Sauvages’s Lycium should have an oval, yellow-reddish berrry. Linnaeus suggests that Sauvages sends a letter to Séguier.

Linnaeus has had no news from Xaviero ManettiManetti, Xaverio (Saverio)
(1723-1785). Italian. Physician,
professor of botany at Florence.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, so he does not know if he has been elected a member of the the Botanical Society of Florence [Società Botanica FiorentinaSocietà Botanica Fiorentina,
The Botanical Society of Florence

Italian. The first botanical society in
Europe, founded in 1716 by Pier Antonio
Micheli. Merged in 1783 with the
Accademia dei Georgofili, the first
agricultural academy in Europe, founded
in 1753.
].

He has received James Lind’sLind, James (1716-1794).
British. Surgeon at the Royal Navy
(1739-1748). Physician in Edinburgh
(1748-1758) and at the Haslar Naval
Hospital in Gosport, Hampshire
(1758-1783). Developed a cure for
treating scurvy with citrus fruits.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
treatise on scurvy, A Treatise of the ScurvyLind, James A Treatise of the
Scurvy. In three parts. Containing an
inquiry into the nature, causes, and
cure, of that disease, etc.

(Edinburgh 1753).
. Lind’s description is not in keeping with the traditional view of scurvy.

Inoculation against smallpox started on a large scale, but since two daughters of Linnaeus’s colleague Nils Rosén von RosensteinRosén von Rosenstein, Nils
(1706-1773). Swedish. Physician
and professor of medicine. Colleague of
Linnaeus at Uppsala. The founder of
modern pediatrics. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
died after this treatment, it has practically fallen out of use [von Rosenstein lost one daughter after this treatment, Johanna Maria Rosen von RosensteinRosen von Rosenstein, Johanna Maria
(1752-1756). Swedish. Daughter of
Anna Christina and Nils Rosén
von Rosenstein. Sister of Anna Margareta
Aurivillius and Nils von Rosenstein.
, but her twin-brother, Nils von RosensteinRosenstein, Nils von
(1752-1824). Swedish. Son of Anna
Christina and Nils Rosén von
Rosenstein. Brother of Anna Margareta
Aurivillius and Johanna Maria
Rosén von Rosenstein.
survived].

Linnaeus owns Vitaliano Donati’sDonati, Vitaliano (1713-1763).
Italian. Professor of natural history,
Turin. Travelled in the Balkans and in
the Orient. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
publication [Linnaeus refers to Della storia naturale marina dell’ Adriatico Donati, Vitaliano Della
storia naturale marina dell’ Adriatico
saggio giuntavi una lettera del Signor
L. Sesler intorno ad un nuovo genere di
piante terrestri
(Venice 1750).
] but wishes that his 40 illustrations of marine animals could be published.

Linnaeus has written to Holm [presumably Christian HolmHolm, Christian Swedish.
Consul, Sêté.
] in Stockholm. Holm has promised to inform him of the time for his departure so some theses can be delivered. Systema [naturae] has not been printed yet [it is unclear which editon Linnaeus refers to, presumably Systema naturae, 9th editionLinnaeus, Carl Systema
naturae
, 9th edition, ed. J. F.
Gronovius (Leiden 1756). Soulsby no. 57.
].

Linnaeus thanks for Iberidis Gallo-provincialis.

Does Sauvages know a remedy against migraine? Linnaeus is often troubled by it.

In Uppsala, the semitertian ague is very common. Linnaeus has cured numerous patients by prescribing ipecacuanha, quinine and laudanum.

Patrick Browne’sBrowne, Patrick (1720-1790).
Irish. Botanist who made six voyages to
the West Indies. In 1756 he published
The Civil and natural history of
Jamaica
(1756). Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
"The Natural History of Jamaica" [The Civil and natural history of JamaicaBrowne, Patrick The Civil and
natural history of Jamaica: in three
parts: containing, I. An accurate
description of that island [...] with a
brief account of its former and present
state, government, revenues, produce,
and trade: II. A history of the natural
productions [...] native fossils [...]:
III: An account of the nature of
climates in general, and their
different effects upon the human
body
(London 1756).
] has been published in London, but Linnaeus has not received it yet.

John Ellis’sEllis, John (1711-1776).
British. Merchant and naturalist, expert
on zoophytes. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
”de Corallinis”, Essai sur l’ histoire naturelle des corallinesEllis, John Essai sur l’
histoire naturelle des corallines, et d’
autres productions marines du même
genre, qu’on trouve communément
sur les côtes de la
Grande-Bretagne et d’Irlande; auquel on
a joint une description d’un grand
polype de mer, pris auprès du
Pole arctique, par des pêcheurs de
Baleine, pendant l’été de
1753
(The Hague 1756).
has also been published in London, an impressive work that will shed new light on corals.

Linnaeus wants to know when Sedum acre and seven other plants open their flowers.

The information is interesting.

Linnaeus will send his Calendarium floraeLinnaeus, Carl Calendarium
florae
, diss., resp. A. M. Berger
(Uppsala 1756). Soulsby no. 1897.
, when he is informed of Holm’s departure.

It is strange that Cyperum Italicum is common in India, and that the American Andropogos alopecuroides and Phalaris oryzoides are also found in Italy together with rice. Probably seeds of these plants have come together with imported rice.

Séguier has sent some very rare plants: Geranium argenteum, Salvinia, Comaroides and Arenaria Bavarica.

Johannes BurmannBurman, Johannes (1707-1779).
Dutch. Botanist, professor of medicine
in Amsterdam. Close friend of Linnaeus.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
who has published Charles Plumier’sPlumier, Charles (1646-1704).
French. Botanist, travelled in Central
America and the Carribean. Linnaeus
generally approved of the descriptions
in his richly illustrated botanical
works.
[botanical] illustrations [Linnaeus refers to Plantarum Americanarum fasciculus primus[-decimus]Plumier, Charles Plantarum
Americanarum fasciculus primus[-decimus]
continens plantas, quas olim C.
Plumierius [...] detexit, eruitque,
atque in insulis Antillis ipse depinxit.
Has primum in lucem edidit, concinnis
descriptionibus & observationibus,
aeneisque tabulis illustravit J.
Burmannus
(Amsterdam 1755-1760).
has sent more than 80 illustrations of about 100 species that he bought when Herman Boerhaave’sBoerhaave, Herman (1668-1738).
Dutch. Professor of medicine, botany and
chemistry at Leiden. One of the most
influential professors of medicine of
the eighteenth century. Linnaeus visited
him during his stay in Holland.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
library was sold. When Boerhaave acquired these pictures, William SherardSherard, William (1659-1728).
British. British consul in Smyrna.
Collector of botanical specimens. Took
the initiative to the first chair in
botany at Oxford. The first professor
was Johan Jacob Dillenius. Owner of the
estate Eltham in Kent.
acted as his agent assisted by Sébastien VaillantVaillant, Sébastien
(1669-1722). French. Botanist and
surgeon. Professor at the Jardin des
plantes. His theory on plant sexuality
influenced Linnaeus who regarded
Vaillant as one of the most important
botanists.
. Obriteos [Claude AubrietAubriet, Claude (1651-1743).
French. Accompanied Joseph Pitton de
Tournefort on his travels to the Orient.
] was the artist.

Albrecht von Haller’sHaller, Albrecht von
(1708-1777). Swiss. Naturalist and
poet, professor of medicine, botany,
anatomy and surgery at Göttingen
1736-1753. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
successor Zian [Johann Gottfried ZinnZinn, Johann Gottfried
(1727-1759). German. Physician and
botanist, director of the botanical
garden of Göttingen (1753).
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
] is going to write a ”Historia Salviae” [see Zinn to Linnaeus, 26/2 1756Letter L2009; this plan was, however, probably never realized, although he has an extensive description in his Catalogus Plantarum Horti Academici et agri GottingensisZinn, Johann Gottfried
Catalogus Plantarum Horti Academici
et agri Gottingensis. Conscriptus a
Johann Gottfried Zinn

(Göttingen 1757). Soulsby no.
637e.
], and Haller himself is all set on orchids [Linnaeus refers to Haller’s forthcoming, “Orchidum classis constituta”Haller, Albrecht von “Orchidum
classis constituta”, Acta helvetica,
physico-mathematico-botanico-medica

4 (Basle, 1760), 82-166.
].

Linnaeus has published a dissertation on the flora of Palestine [Flora PalaestinaLinnaeus, Carl Flora
Palaestina
, diss., resp. J. Strand
(Uppsala, 1756). Soulsby no. 1886.
].

In the Bible there is a story about dove’s droppings being sold at high price in a period of famine. No philologist has presented a plausible explanation. Linnaeus believes that the roots of ornithogallum umbellatum lie behind this tradition.

Should not Synocha Hungarica be referred to Amphimerinae?

Febris lyngodes, in old times Nolphoc, be named Synochus singultuosus or be referred to Paraphrenesis?

When will Sauvages publish ”Classes morborum” [Linnaeus refers to the work by Sauvages published in 1763 and entitled, Nosologia methodica sistens morborum classes, genera et speciesSauvages, François Boissier de
La Croix de
Nosologia methodica
sistens morborum classes, genera et
species : juxtà Sydenhami mentem
& botanicorum ordinem
(Amsterdam
1763)
] and include all species?

He is now working day and night on a new edition of Systema naturae [Linnaeus refers to Systema naturae, 10th editionLinnaeus, Carl Systema
naturae
, 10th edition (Stockholm
1758-1759). Soulsby no. 58.
], in which he will include all known animals.

Linnaeus has never experienced a colder spring during his time in Uppsala.

Linnaeus has received Marrubium Alysson from England and will send seeds of it to Sauvages.

From the divine seeds Sauvages sent the previous year, new plants are growing, even such ones that did not germinate then.

He asks Sauvages to pass on the enclosed letter to Séguier [Linnaeus to Séguier, 22 April 1756Letter L2035].

Spigeliâ anthelmicâ has been used with great success against worms.

Johan Frederik GronoviusGronovius, Johan Frederik
(1690-1762). Dutch. Naturalist, senator
of Leiden. Linnaeus’s benefactor and
friend. Published Flora Virginica
(1743, 1762) together with John Clayton.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
is poorly. George CliffordClifford, George (1685-1760).
Dutch. Banker and merchant in Amsterdam,
Linnaeus’s benefactor. Owner of
Hartecamp and its botanical garden
outside Haarlem. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
has asked Linnaeus to publish a second edition of Hortus CliffortianusLinnaeus, Carl Hortus
Cliffortianus, plantas exhibens quas in
hortis tam vivis quam siccis Hartecampi
in Hollandia coluit [...] Georgius
Clifford
(Amsterdam 1737). Soulsby
no. 328.
[a second edition was never published].

Pehr Kalm’sKalm, Pehr (1716-1779).
Swedish. Botanist and traveller,
professor of natural history at
Åbo. Disciple of Linnaeus.
Travelled in North America 1748-1751.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
”Flora Canadensis” has not been printed yet [this intended work by Kalm was never published]. There has been no news from Pehr LöflingLöfling, Pehr (1729-1756).
Swedish. Botanist and explorer. Studied
under Linnaeus. Went to Spain in 1751
and took part in the Spanish expedition
to Venezuela in 1754, where he died.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
for a year [Linnaeus was still unaware of Löfling’s death in Venezuela in February 1756].

Daniel RolanderRolander, Daniel (1725-1793).
Swedish. Naturalist and explorer.
Studied at Uppsala University under
Linnaeus. Went to Surinam in 1755-1756.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
has reportedly died in Suriname [Linnaeus was misinformed, Rolander returned from Suriname in October 1756, and died in 1793].

upEDITIONS

1. Lettres inédites de Linné à Boissier de la Croix de Sauvages (1860), p. 206-215   p.206  p.207  p.208  p.209  p.210  p.211  p.212  p.213  p.214  p.215.