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C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L2570 • Carl Linnaeus to François Boissier de La Croix de Sauvages, 8 August 1759 n.s.
Dated 1759 d 8 Augustii. Sent from Uppsala (Sweden) to Montpellier (France). Written in Latin.

Amico integerrimo suavissimoque,
D[omino] D[octori] FR[ANCISCO] de SAUVAGES,
S[alutem] pl[urimam] d[icit]
C[arolus] Linnaeus,
Equ[es].

Obrutus munere Rectoris, diutius quam par est ad Te, Amicissime, scribere distuli. Accepi Tuas ultimas summa cum voluptate. Tuae enim me, prae reliquorum omnium, semper exhillarant et reficiunt, forte quod ubique madeant solida eruditione et infucata ac calida amicitia.

Fui nuper Holmiae jussu Academiae, ut offerrem Cancellario nostro monetam auream, quam Academia in ejus honorem cudi curavit. In cujus altera parte imago et inscriptio: C[arolus] Ehrenpreutz comes Reg[ni] Suec[iae] senator; in altera, Apollo, cum inscriptione: Ditat et illustrat.

Testudinis aquatici fluviatilis historia perplaceret. Utinam mitteres!

Cancer in lectulis, forte Acarus cancroides Fn. Suec., 1187.

Cancer in frigido fonte, forte Cancer Fn. Suec., 1253, s[ive] 1254, s[ive] 1257.

Avidissime exspecto nautam cum Dissertationibus, cum a Tuis semper doctior recedo, quod rarissime ab aliis; ut accepero, ad plantas mox respondebo.

Utinam accederent Gouanii insecta! Quaeso, quaere ab eo de Phycide pisce, quem adeo graphice descripserat, situm pinnarum ventralium, utrum hae sitae sint pone pinnas pectorales, vel perpendiculariter sub pennis pectoralibus, vel etiam ante pinnas pectorales; ut hoc accepero, potero piscem ad suum genus reducere. An huic pisci aliqua affinitas cum Blenniis?

An Brissonus alterum tomum ediderit de Animalibus?

An alter tomus Adansonii lucem viderit?

Donati Floram nondum potui obtinere, quam avidissime videre gestio.

Multum de generatione animalium meditatus sum. Video plantas constare substantia medullari et corticali. Medullarem substantiam a matre dependere non obscure vidi; corticalem a patre. In generatione plantarum hybrida, nova planta refert patrem caule et foliis, i. e., larva plantae; at interna et fructificatio, matris formam gerit; inde fundamentum generum plantarum naturalium. Idem etiam in animalibus non obscure video exemplis fere innumeris; sed nondum rite percipio, quomodo hae nuptiae cohaereant.

Egregie nunc floret Conyza bifrons vestraque, sed illa cum radio, quae Inulam pulcherrime refert. Plurimas habui plantas hoc anno florentes e Cap[ite] B[onae] Spei, easque pulcherrimas: Ixias, Gladiolos, Antholyzas, etc.

Summo cum damno scientiae Botanicen reliquisti. Nullibi majores errores quam in hoc orbe, etiam apud vestrates, qui de eruditionis principatu cum aliis omnibus certant.

Sudat nunc quartus tomus Amoenitatum Academicarum.

An novum tuum systema morborum prodierit? Quaeso, cures, ut habeam inter primos.

Loeflingii iter Hispanicum absolvi, et prodiit, sed lingua Suecica.

Paro jam tertium tomum systematis, scilicet, de lapidibus.

Hisce absolutis, accipio suavissimas Tuas, die 10 julii datas, ditissimas summis naturae deliciis.

Multum Tibi, Vir amicissime, debeo, quod adeo graphice ad me scripsisti de Jacquini itinere. Si ille poterit praestare 20 nova genera, satis erit; dubito tamen. Doleo maxime, quod non siccas collegerit plantas; ideoque nec potest corrigere, si quos commiserit errores, si quidquam deficiat in observationibus. Ego ipsi inserviam, si me consulat, fidelissime. Brownius est laudandus author. Certe, pro suo modulo, satis bene observavit; vidi ejus plantas et confirmatus fui. Si Agave sobolifera sit hexapetala, erit Yuccae generis, quod mihi paradoxum. Leguminosam drupifera recte singularem dicis. Aristolochiam trilobatam, ejusque virtutem maxime miror; odor et sapor ejus est profecto stupendus. Achras characterem in altero tomo systematis, p. 1381, videas, ad observata Loeflingii plane mutatum, et Chrysophylli emendatum ibid., p. 937.

Bracelet est omnino Caesalpiniae species; habeo siccam.

Hedera tetrandra Jacq[uini] est Cissus apud me.

Herbe au Charpentier non novi.

De Syphilitide res singularis; fere crederem omnia venena curare luem.

Helicteres flores rite vidi.

Ichthyomadiae vis inebriandi pisces, Sloane et Browne habent.

Sanguis Draconis extrahitur a variis plantis; alia Kaempfero, alia Rumphio, alia Loeflingio, alia Jacquinio.

Sauvagesiam hodie examinavi siccam; Jacquini eius character non recedit a meo novo, nisi quod pili deficiant. Citum nectarium absolute in meo specimine.

Planta illa, quae scandit et deprimit sylvas, est Lens phaseoloides Fl[orae] Zeyl[anicae] et forte species Mimosae; habeo vivam in Horto et parvam, quae nunquam apud me florebit, nec vidi unquam flores.

Lemoniera Brownii est Gratiolae species.

Camojonduram non novi.

Habeo Schizzilobiam Brownii; experiar, num oleum tollat ejus pruritum.

Et Iter Hasselquistianum et Systema haberes, si navis et occasio mittendi se offerat. Centuria 3ia non prodiit.

D[ominus] Forskåhl, impensis Regis Daniae, mense Decembris inibit iter in Arabiam; dignissimus huic muneri juvenis Professor completus.

De Boecleris mihi nova dixisti, de eorum fato nil audivi antea.

Nequissimus editor Specierum Animalium, quae idem cum tomo lmo Systematis optimam rem meae editioni praestitit, quod omiserit nomina Trivialia, et pleraque synonyma a me tanto studio collecta, et innumera alia!

Vellem, si possem, ad Te mittere Peloriam, quae occupat totam aream; floret egregie, sed semina non dat.

Dabam Upsaliae 1759 d[ie] 8 Augusti.

[a][a] : MS1 Addo ... porrifolii [added
in the margin on fol. 4 by Linnaeus
]
Addo semina Tragopogonis, arte confecti e Tragopogone pratensi, fecundato antheris Tragopog[onis] porrifolii.

upSUMMARY

Overburdened by a Vice Chancellor’s duties Linnaeus has not had time to write to François Boissier de La Croix de SauvagesSauvages, François Boissier de
La Croix de
(1706-1767). French.
Botanist and clergyman and physician,
professor in medicine at Montpellier.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
until now which he regrets. He thanks Sauvages for his latest friendly and amiable letter [Linnaeus refers to the letter from Sauvages to Linnaeus, 6 March 1759Letter L2518], as always a delight to read.

Linnaeus has been i Stockholm to offer the Academy’s medal [Linnaeus refers to the golden medal awarded by Uppsala University, Uppsala UniversitetUppsala University, Swedish.
Uppsala University was founded in 1477.
] to the Chancellor Carl Diedric EhrenpreusEhrenpreus, Carl Diedric
(1692-1760). Swedish. Count,
Councillor, Chancellor of Uppsala
University. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
.

Linnaeus would like Sauvages to send the report on Testudo aquaticus fluviatilis.

He comments on Cancer in lectulis and Cancer in frigido fonte. He is looking forward to the promised dissertations. When reading Sauvages’s writings Linnaeus always learns something new, which rarely happens in other cases.

Also Antoine Gouan’sGouan, Antoine (1733-1821).
French. Botanist, Montpellier. Student
under Sauvages. Director of the
botanical garden in 1767, later
professor of botany and medicine.
Although an admirer of Linnaeus he tried
to develop a hybrid of his system of
classification. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
insects are eagerly expected. Linnaeus asks Gouan for additional information about the exact position of the fins of the fish called phycis. When he has all the facts, he will be able to decide its genus.

Has Mathurin Jacques BrissonBrisson, Mathurin Jacques
(1723-1806). French. Physicist and
geologist, professor in Paris.
published a new volume of De Animalibus [Linnaeus refers to Regnum animaleBrisson, Mathurin Jacques
Regnum animale in classes IX
distributum, etc.
(Paris 1756).
]?

And has Michel AdansonAdanson, Michel (1727-1806).
French. Botanist. Travelled in Senegal.
An opponent of Linnaeus. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
produced a second volume [Linnaeus refers to Histoire naturelle du SénégalAdanson, Michel Histoire
naturelle du Sénégal.
Coquillages. Avec la relation
abrégée d'un voyage fait
en ce pays, pendant les années
1749, 50, 51, 52 & 53, etc.

(Paris 1757).
]?

Linnaeus is eager to acquire Donatus’s [Vitaliano Donati’sDonati, Vitaliano (1713-1763).
Italian. Professor of natural history,
Turin. Travelled in the Balkans and in
the Orient. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
] Flora [Linnaeus refers to Della storia naturale marina dell’ AdriaticoDonati, Vitaliano Della
storia naturale marina dell’ Adriatico
saggio giuntavi una lettera del Signor
L. Sesler intorno ad un nuovo genere di
piante terrestri
(Venice 1750).
, in French translation 1758, Essai sur l’histoire naturelle de la Mer AdriatiqueDonati, Vitaliano Essai sur
l'histoire naturelle de la Mer
Adriatique [...] avec une lettre du
docteur L. Sesler sur une nouvelle
espèce de plante terrestre
.
Traduit de l'Italien [by G. F. M. M.
Salvemini di Castiglione.] (The Hague
1758)
] but his efforts have been fruitless, so far.

He dwells upon which qualities an offspring inherits from the male and which from the female part. He can discern certain patterns but has not got a complete picture.

Conyza has come into flower and so have many plants from the Cape of Good Hope: Ixias, Gladioli, Antholyzae etc.

Science has suffered a severe loss now that Sauvages has left botany.

The fourth tome of Amoenitates academicaeLinnaeus, Carl Amoenitates
academicae
, I-X (Stockholm
1749-1790). Soulsby no. 1280.
is being printed [the vol. 4 was published in 1759].

Has Sauvages’s Systema morborum been published yet [Linnaeus refers to the forthcoming, Nosologia methodica sistens morborum classes, genera et speciesSauvages, François Boissier de
La Croix de
Nosologia methodica
sistens morborum classes, genera et
species : juxtà Sydenhami mentem
& botanicorum ordinem
(Amsterdam
1763)
]? Linnaeus wants to be the first to receive it.

Pehr Löfling’sLöfling, Pehr (1729-1756).
Swedish. Botanist and explorer. Studied
under Linnaeus. Went to Spain in 1751
and took part in the Spanish expedition
to Venezuela in 1754, where he died.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
Spanish Journey has been published but in Swedish [Linnaeus refers to Iter Hispanicum, eller resa til spanska länderna uti Europa och AmericaLöfling, Pehr Iter
Hispanicum, eller resa til spanska
länderna uti Europa och America

(Stockholm 1758).
].

Linnaeus is working on the third tome of the Systema naturae, dealing with minerals [Linnaeus refers to Systema naturae, 10th editionLinnaeus, Carl Systema
naturae
, 10th edition (Stockholm
1758-1759). Soulsby no. 58.
; the 10th edition was published in two volumes, “Animalia” 1758 and “Vegetabilia” 1759. The third volume, “Mineralia” was never published].

Having written so far, Linnaeus receives Sauvages’s letter of 10 July [Sauvages to Linnaeus, 10 July 1759Letter L2257].

He appreciates Sauvages’s detailed description of Nicolas Joseph von Jacquin’sJacquin, Nicolaus Joseph, baron von
(1727-1817). Dutch. Botanist. In
1755 at the order of emperor Franz I of
Austria he went to the Antilles and
South America. In 1763 he became
professor of mineralogy and chemistry at
Chemnitz, later professor of botany at
Vienna and director of the botanical
garden at Schönbrunn. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
travels. If he can present 20 new genera it is very good. It is a pity, though, that he has no dried plants; it makes it difficult to correct and complete deficient observations. Patrick BrowneBrowne, Patrick (1720-1790).
Irish. Botanist who made six voyages to
the West Indies. In 1756 he published
The Civil and natural history of
Jamaica
(1756). Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
is a competent botanist; Linnaeus cannot but approve of his results. Linnaeus comments on several plants, some of which are presented by Jacquin and Browne: Agave sabolifera, Aristolochi tribolata, Chrysophyllum.

Bracelet, is a species of Caesalpinia; Linnaeus has a dried [specimen].

Hedera tetranda is the same as Cissus at Linnaeus’s [garden, i.e. the Uppsala University Botanical Garden].

Linnaeus does not know of “Herbe au Charpentier”.

A strange thing: it seems like all poisons can cure syphilis.

Linnaeus has seen seen the flowers of Helicteres.

Ichthyomedia has the power to poison fish, according to Hans SloaneSloane, Hans (1660-1753).
British. Physician, naturalist and
collector. Secretary of the Royal
Society in 1693, president in 1727.
Sloane’s collections of natural history
objects were donated to the English
nation and were one of cornerstones of
the British Museum (1759). Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
and Browne.

Kaempfer [Engelbert KämpferKämpfer, Engelbert
(1651-1716). German. Physician,
botanist and explorer. Travelled in
Asia. Known for his works on Japan and
Japanese natural history.
], Rumphius [Georg Eberhard RumpfRumpf, Georg Eberhard
(1628-1702). Dutch. Naturalist and
merchant in the service of the Dutch
East India Company. Governor of the
Dutch colony Ambon. He published two
works on the flora of the isle of Ambon.
], Löfling and Jacquin have different opinions on which plants produce Sanguis Draconis.

Linnaeus has examined Sauvagesia and agrees with Jacquin.

He comments on Lens phasaloides with a reference to Flora ZeylanicaLinnaeus, Carl Flora
Zeylanica; sistens plantas Indicas
Zeylonae insulae, quae olim 1670-1677,
lectae fuere a Paulo Hermanno [...]
demum post 70 annos ab Augusto
Günthero [...] orbi redditae

(Stockholm,1747). Soulsby no. 420.
.

He comments on Lemoniera , there is a reference to Browne, which is the species Graliola.

Linnaeus has Schizzilobia, there is a reference to Browne.

On the first available ship Linnaeus will send Iter Palaestinum eller resa til heliga landetHasselquist, Fredrik Iter
Palaestinum eller resa til heliga
landet
(Stockholm 1757).
and Systema naturae. There will not be a third volume of Centuria [Linnaeus had previously published Centuria I. PlantarumLinnaeus, Carl Centuria I.
Plantarum
, diss., resp. A. Juslenius
(Uppsala 1756). Soulsby no. 1848.
and Centuria II. PlantarumLinnaeus, Carl Centuria II.
Plantarum
, diss., resp. E.
Törner (Uppsala 1756). Soulsby no.
1853.
].

Peter ForskålForsskål, Peter
(1732-1763). Swedish. Naturalist and
explorer. Linnaeus’s student, professor
in Denmark in 1759. Joined a Danish
expedition to Egypt and Arabia in 1761.
Died at Jerîm, Arabia.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
has been appointed professor in Copenhagen. In December the Danish King [Frederik VFrederik V, (1723-1766).
Danish. King of Denmark. Reigned
1746-1766.
] will send him on an expedition to Arabia.

What Sauvages has said about Boeclerus [Johannes BoeclerBoecler, Johannes (1710-1759).
German?. Professor of Botany, Chemistry
and Physics, Strasbourg.
] is news to Linnaeus; he had not heard anything about his fate before.

The worthless editor of Species animalium has omitted trivial names and synonyms, painstakingly collected by Linnaeus [Linnaeus presumably refers to vol. I in the Systema naturae, 10th edition; if so the editor must be Lars SalviusSalvius, Lars (1706-1773).
Swedish. Printer, bookseller, publisher.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
].

Unfortunately, Peloria, now flowering magnificently, has no seeds.

P.S. He encloses seeds of Tragopon.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (Private collection). [1] [2] [3] [4]

upTEXTUAL NOTES

a.
MS1 Addo ... porrifolii [added in the margin on fol. 4 by Linnaeus]