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Link: • David de Gorter to Carl Linnaeus, 13 November 1759 n.s.
Dated 2 do Novemb. S. V. 1759.. Sent from St Petersburg (Russia) to Uppsala (Sweden). Written in Latin.


David de GorterGorter, David de (1707 or
1717-1783). Dutch. Botanist and
physician. Succeeded his father Johannes
de Gorter as physician-in-ordinary to
the Empress Elizabeth of Russia. Son of
Susanna de Gorter, brother of Herman
Boerhaave de Gorter. Correspondent of
has received Linnaeusís letter dated 16 October [1759; this letter has not come down to us]. Gorter regrets the death of the excellent botanist Jörgen Tyge HolmHolm, Jörgen Tyge
(1726-1759). Danish. Professor of
economy and natural history, Copenhagen.
Linnaeusís student 1750-1751, 1754-1757.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
. Next spring Gorter will again send roots of Paeonia tenuifolia, which this year has grown beautifully in his own garden.

Christian Gottlieb KratzensteinísKratzenstein, Christian Gottlieb
(1723-1795). Danish. Physician and
physicist. Professor in Halle, from 1754
professor of experimental physics at
Copenhagen. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
work on the Conchylia is suppressed, since it has displeased the Dutch legate at the Danish Court. But the illustrations together with another authorís explication will be published [Gorter refers to the commentaries, written by Kratzenstein to Franz Michael RegenfussíRegenfuss, Franz Michael
(1713-1780). German. Engraver and
art-dealer. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
work on Conchylia, Choix de coquillages et de crustacésRegenfuss, Franz Michael
Choix de coquillages et de
crustacés peints d'après
nature, gravés, en taille douce
et illuminés de leurs vraïes
(Copenhagen 1758).
, where the King of Denmark, Fredrik VFredrik V, (1723-1766).
Danish. Reigned Denmark and Norway
, has vetoed the publication of Kratzenstein so that it was being written by a theologian, Johan Andreas CramerCramer, Johan Andreas
(1728-1788). Danish. Court chaplain.
, an assistant and a turner, Lorenz SpenglerSpengler, Lorenz (1720-1807).
Swiss. Swiss-born zoologist, who moved
to Copenhagen, Denmark in 1743.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, at the Danish Court].

Johann Christian HebenstreitHebenstreit, Johann Christian
(1720-1795). German. Botanist, son of
Johann Ernst Hebenstreit, educated at
Leipzig. At St Petersburg from 1749-1751
and 1755-1761. Correspondent of
has not yet returned. He is going to marry in Germany.

Joseph Gottlieb KölreuterKolreuter, Joseph Gottlieb
(1733-1806). German. Botanist,
published a pioneering work on plant
is now the one that cultivates natural history at the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg, [Imperatorskaja akademija naukImperatorskaja akademija nauk,
Imperial Academy of Sciences

Russian. Imperial Academy of Sciences of
St Petersburg, founded in 1725. Its
publications are Commentarii
Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis
, 1-14 (1726 -
1744/1746 [i.e. pub. 1728 - 1751]) and
Novi Commentarii Academiae
Scientiarum Imperialis
, 1-20 (1747/1748 -
1775 [i.e. pub. 1750 - 1776]).
]. He has handed over several observations to the Academy to be published in Novi commentariiImperatorskaja akademija nauk,
Imperial Academy of Sciences

Novi Commentarii Academiae
Scientiarum Imperialis
(St Petersburg,
1747/1748 - 1775 [i.e. pub. 1750 -
. VI sqq.

Through these it will probably be obvious that Russia has never had a greater scientist in natural history than Kölreuter.

Kölreuter has brought all Johann Georg GmelinísGmelin, Johann Georg
(1709-1755). German. Voyager, botanist
and chemist. At the initiative of
empress Anna of Russia he spent ten
years (1733-1743) exploring Siberia. In
1749 he became professor of botany and
chemistry at Tübingen. Together
with his nephew Samuel Gottlieb he wrote
Flora Sibirica (1747-1769).
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
manuscripts to Russia, which he bought from Gmelinís widow [Barbara Frommenia GmelinFrommenia, Barbara (1709-1789).
German. Wife of Johann Georg Gmelin,
daughter of Johann Ulrich Frommamm.
] at the expense of the Academy.

The Academy has received Linnaeusís dissertation on the sexuality of plants [Disquisitio de quaestione ab Academia Imperiali Scientiarum Petropol. in annum 1759, pro praemio proposita: Sexum Plantarum argumentis et experimentis novisLinnaeus, Carl Disquisitio de
quaestione ab Academia Imperiali
Scientiarum Petropol. in annum 1759, pro
praemio proposita: Sexum Plantarum
argumentis et experimentis novis,
praeter adhuc jam cognita, vel
corroborare, vel impugnare,
præmissa expositione historica et
physica omnium plantae partium, quae
aliquid ad faecundationem et
perfectionem seminis et fructus conferre
creduntur, ab eadem Academia [...]
praemio ornata
(St. Petersburg,
1760). Soulsby no. 2115.
]. Kölreuter praises it very much. The following day it will be sent to Gorter. It is the wish of the preses that Gorter, too, shall give a judgement on the dissertations. [In 1759 Linnaeus sent a contribution to a competition regarding the sexuality of plants. Linnaeus won the contest and received 100 ducats specie]. Linnaeusís dissertation on Nitraria could not be inserted in Novi commentarii, vol. V, because the phytic class has already been printed [Linnaeusís description was published in vol. VII, Nitraria "Nitraria, planta obscura
explicata a Carolo Linnaeo",
Novi Commentarii Academiae
Scientiarum Imperialis
, VII ([1758-1759],
1761), 315-320. Soulsby no. 559
]. However, Gorter added what Linnaeus wrote on the pericarp and seed. Hebenstreit and Constantin ScepinScepin, Constantin (1727-?).
Russian?. Physician and botanist from
Siberia, doctor of medicine in Leiden in
1758. Visited Linnaeus in Uppsala in
1759. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
have both handed over a description of Rudbeckia Zinnii to the Academy: Hebenstreit under the name Verbesina, but Scepin under the name Crassina, said by Stephan Petrovich KrascheninnikovKrascheninnikov, Stephan Petrovich
(1713-1755). Russian. Professor
of natural history, St Petersburg. Went
with Johann Georg Gmelin to Siberia and
came as the only member of the
expedition to Kamchatka. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
. Gorter admires the audacity of Scepin who is a tyro in these matters.

Gorter wonders whether Linnaeus has received Novi commentarii, vol. IV, and the dissertations that the Academy has sent him. The following day a messenger will leave for Stockholm and after a short delay return to St Petersburg. Therefore, Gorter entreats Linnaeus to send him his Systema naturae Systema naturae [Gorter refers to the tenth edition, Systema naturae, 10th editionLinnaeus, Carl Systema
, 10th edition (Stockholm
1758-1759). Soulsby no. 58.
] which he has desired for such a long time, and the dissertation on the Jamaican plants [Plantarum Jamaicensium pugillusLinnaeus, Carl Plantarum
Jamaicensium pugillus
, diss., resp.
G. Elmgren (Uppsala 1759). Soulsby no.
] and the other ones that Gorter had requested in his latest letters. P.S. Count Gyllenborgh [presumably Carl Johan GyllenborgGyllenborg, Carl Johan
(1741-1811). Swedish. Count and lawyer,
president of the administrative court of
appeal. Linnaeusís student in 1748.
] sends his regards.


a. original holograph (LS, V, 111-112). [1] [2] [3]