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C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L2832 • Daniel Solander to Carl Linnaeus, 19 December 1760 n.s.
Dated d. 19. Dec. 1760.. Sent from London (Great Britain) to Uppsala (Sweden). Written in Swedish.

Välborne Herr Archiater och Riddare af Kongl[iga] Nordstjärne-orden,
höggunstige Befordrare,

Jag håppas nu at vara den första som kunnat skicka hem til Sverige friska Thé-frön. Igenom H[err] Ellis har jag fått dem. De äro samlade i Norra delen af China och förvarade i Vax-bållar. H[err] Ellis som först proponeradt detta nya sättet at förvara frön, så at de ei skola härskna eller annars skadas af tårka, hade nu för några dagar sedan den fägnaden at få hem en hel hop friska The-frön, jag tror öfver 50 capsuler, men jag kunde ej få flera än dessa 2; ty alla de öfriga skulle skickas til Ängelska Colonierna uti Norra America och några deltes ut här til de bästa Trägårds mästare; ty H[err] Ellis skänkte dem alla til Vetenskaps Societeten. Den ena Capsulen som här medföljer är innesluten i vax, dock tunnare än när den kom öfver från China, och den andra låter jag följa bar, ty jag tror ei den skal skadas denna årstiden.

Med denna påsten lärer H[err] Ellis skicka en kort beskrifning på ett curieöst Djur, som är rätta originalet både til Encrinos och Entrochos. Jag skref en kort beskrifning på Latin som han skulle vertera äntel[ige]n på Ängelska; ty sedan jag berättade honom at det var en ganska stor decouvert, så har han blifvit så jaloux om det, at jag måst låfva honom på ära och tro at ei ge däröfver beskrifning til någon Mänskja förr än han fått publicera det först för Vetenskaps Societen här i London. Han låfte äfven at skicka en liten figure af det. Jag tror at det säkert blir ett nytt genus. Vore jag säker på at detta hans Specimen endast voro en Ramus, så at hela vore et Animal compositum, så kommo väl consistencen närmast til Zoophyta; är detta det hela så att det är ett animal simplex, så skulle det väl bli ett Molluscon och liksom en Asterias pedunculata, testacea, combinera Mollusca och Zoophyta. På det Herr Archiatern må se consistencen så följer här jämte en liten bit utaf en Sides-gren, själfva stammen är intet aldeles så glatt. När jag först hos Doct[o]r Fothergill fick se detta diuret, böd jag 2 guineer för det, men det stod ei til få för pengar; Det var skickat som en present ifrån En i America til Herr Ellis, men Skjeps Captain sålde det när han kom hit til London til Doct[o]r Fothergill; men när han fick veta at det var ärnadt til Ellis så skickade han det strax til Ellis och bad honom beskrifva det såsom sitt egit, men förbehöll sig likväl at det sedan skulle lämnas tillbakars til hans samling, hälst Ellis själf ej gjör någon samling.

Jag tackar ödmjukast för H[err] Archiatern sidsta bref som jag fick under H[err] Hudsons couvert och äfven för besväret med Stipendii öfversändande som riktigt öfverkommit til H[err]ar Spalding och Brander; nu är just en odrägelig växel-course på så små summor, hvart pound kostar 69 dr Kmt D[octo]r Russel, D[octo]r Watson, Hudson och in specie den gode Collinson hälsa hjärteligen. H[err] JustitiaeRådet Leuch har offererat mig at få gjöra följe med honom på en resa genom södra delen af Ängland; I öfvermårgon lära vi sätta ut. Han består hela Resekåstnaden. Jag tänker få se Oxford, Bath, Bristol, Wells, Exeter, Plymouth, Southampton, Portsmouth etc.

Uti kårken har jag äfven inlagt några frö af en Anona, de kommo äfven i Vax ifrån ostindien, där de blifvit samlade på en Ö under 40 grader nordlig latitude. Jag har lagt The frön i en korkskifva på det de ei skulle kunna bräckas eller annars skadas under vägen. Jag var rädd at om jag skickat dem i en ask skulle den kunnat kramas sönder och frön fara illa; jag anser dem såsom en stor acqvisition och därföre håppas at det ei illa uptages at de skickas med påsten. H[err] Ellis öpnade sidst i Vetenskaps Academien några Ekollon som han praeserverat i Vax och Talg; De voro öfver ett år gamla; alla i vax voro friska men somlige i Talgen skämde.

Hos nådiga Frun, Mamsellerne och H[err] Linnaeus täks Herr Archiatern förmäla min ödmjuka och hjärteliga hälsning; äfven så hos alla andra mina Gynnare och Vänner; Nu är jag så väl van vid Ängelska lefnads sättet, at jag märker ingen den minsta olägenhet. Ingen den ringaste kjöld hafva vi ännu haft.

Med djupaste vördnad har jag äran in til min död at framhärda,
Välborne Herr Archiaterns och Riddarens
ödmjukaste och lydigaste tjänare
Daniel C[arlsson] Solander

London d[en] 19 Dec[embris]
1760

upSUMMARY

Daniel SolanderSolander, Daniel (1733-1782).
Swedish. Naturalist, explorer. Student
in Uppsala under Linnaeus and Johan
Gottschalk Wallerius. Went to London in
1760. Curator of natural history
collections at the British Museum.
Botanist on Cook’s first voyage
1768-1771. Joseph Bank’s librarian.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
hopes that he is the first one able to send fresh seeds of tea to Sweden. He has got them from John EllisEllis, John (1711-1776).
British. Merchant and naturalist, expert
on zoophytes. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
. They are collected in the northern part of China and stored in wax balls. Ellis, who was the first to propose this new method of preserving seeds [Ellis later published a work on this subject, Directions for Bringing over Seeds and PlantsEllis, John Directions for
Bringing over Seeds and Plants, From the
East-Indies and Other Distant Countries
: in a State of Vegetation:Together With
a Catalogue of Such Foreign Plants, as
are Worthy of Being Encouraged in Our
American Colonies
(London, 1770)
], had recently received more than fifty capules of fresh tea seeds, but Solander had not been able to obtain more than two. The rest were to be sent to North American colonies and some were distributed to the best gardeners here, for Ellis gave them all to the Royal Society, LondonRoyal Society, London,
British. The Royal Society was founded
in Oxford in 1645 and sanctioned as a
royal society in 1662.
. One of the capsules [that Solander is sending to Linnaeus] is enclosed in wax, the other is not.

Ellis sends with this mail a short description of a curious animal, the correct original of both Encrinus and Entrochos [starfish belonging to a group or phylum of animals called echinoderms]. Solander told him that it was a quite great discovery and had promised not to tell anyone about it until it had been published at the Royal Society of London [the description was published two years later, "An Account of an Encrinus"Ellis, John "An Account of
an Encrinus, or Starfish, with a Jointed
Stem, Taken on the Coast of Barbadoes,
Which Explains to What Kind of Animal
Those Fossils Belong, Called Starstones,
Asteriae, and Astropodia, Which Have
been Found in Many Parts of This
Kingdom: in a Letter to Mr. Emanuel
Mendes da Costa, F. R. S. B John Ellis,
Esq; F. R. S.", Philosophical
Transactions
, 52 (1762), 357-365
]. Ellis will send an illustration of it. He encloses for Linnaeus a slice of a side branch. When Solander saw it at John Fothergill’sFothergill, John (1712-1780).
British. Physician and collector of
natural history objects. Studied in
Holland, France and Germany. His cabinet
of zoological and mineralogical
specimens as well as his botanical
garden at Upton were well known.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
he had offered two guineas but it was not for sale. The animal was sent to Ellis from someone in America [possibly Alexander GardenGarden, Alexander (1730-1791).
British/American. Doctor of medicine,
South Carolina. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
], but the sea-captain sold it to Fothergill when he arrived in London,who, when he learnt that it was meant for Ellis, sent it to him och asked him to describe it as his own, demanding however that it should be returned to him as Ellis himself has no collection.

Solander thanks Linnaeus for the last letter under cover to William HudsonHudson, William (1730-1792).
British. Pharmacist at Westmoreland.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
[this letter has not come down to us] and for the trouble with the remittance of the Stipendium Piperianum. Patrick RussellRussell, Patrick (1727-1805).
British. Physician and naturalist
(herpetologist). Succeeded his
half-brother Alexander Russell as a
physician in Aleppo, Syria. After having
practiced medicine in London, he went to
the Madras province for some years,
where he among other things studied the
snakes of India.
, William WatsonWatson, William (1715-1787).
British. Physician, physicist and
botanist. Studied at Halle and
Wittenberg. Physician to the Foundling
Hospital in London.
, Hudson and in particular Peter CollinsonCollinson, Peter (1694-1768).
British. Merchant and amateur naturalist
in London, corresponded with many
scientists. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
send respects. Morten LeuchLeuch, Morten (1732-1768).
Norwegian. Estate owner and partner in
the firm of Collett & Leuch (timber
exports to England].
has offered Solander company on a journey in southern England and see Oxford, Bath, Bristol, Wells, Exeter, Plymouth, Southampton, Portsmouth, etc.

In the cork Solander has put some seeds of Anona from East India. He has sent seeds of tea in a cork slab. Ellis had before the Royal Society opened acorns preserved one year in wax and tallow. Those in wax were fresh but some of those in tallow were bad.

His humble and cordial regards to Linnaeus’s wife [Sara Elisabet MoraeaMoraea, Sara Elisabet
(1716-1806). Swedish. Linnaeus’s wife.
Daughter of Johan Moraeus and Elisabet
Hansdotter Moraea. Mother of Carl
Linnaeus the Younger and of Elisabeth
Christina, Louisa, Sara Christina and
Sophia Linnaea.
] and the daughters [Elisabeth Christina LinnaeaBergencrantz, Elisabeth Christina
(1743-1782). Swedish. Daughter of
Carl Linnaeus and Sara Elisabet Linnaea.
Sister of Carl Linnaeus the Younger and
of Louisa, Sara Christina and Sophia
Linnaea. Married to Carl Fredrik
Bergencrantz.Mother of Sara Elisabeth
Martin.
, Louisa LinnaeaLinnaea, Louisa (1749-1839).
Swedish. Daughter of Carl Linnaeus and
Sara Elisabet Linnaea. Sister of Carl
Linnaeus the Younger and of Elisabeth
Christina, Sara Christina and Sophia
Linnaea.
, Sara Christina LinnaeaLinnaea, Sara Christina
(1751-1835). Swedish. Daughter of Carl
Linnaeus and Sara Elisabet Linnaea.
Sister of Carl Linnaeus the Younger and
of Elisabeth Christina, Louisa and
Sophia Linnaea.
and Sophia LinnaeaLinnaea, Sophia (1757-1830).
Swedish. Daughter of Carl Linnaeus and
Sara Elisabet Linnaea. Sister of Carl
Linnaeus the Younger and of Elisabeth
Christina, Louisa and Sara Christina
Linnaea. Wife of Samuel Christoffer
Duse.
] and to Carl Linnaeus the YoungerLinnaeus the Younger, Carl
(1741-1783). Swedish. Botanist. Son of
Carl Linnaeus and Sara Elisabet Linnaea.
Brother of Elisabeth Christina, Louisa,
Sara Christina and Sophia Linnaea.
Attended his father’s lectures, had
private tutors (Löfling, Rolander,
Solander and Falk, all Linnaeus’s
students). Demonstrator of botany at
Uppsala. Succeeded his
father.
. He says he is now so accustomed to the English way of living that he feels not the slightest inconvenience. There has not been the slightest cold.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (LS, XIV, 135). [1] [2]

upEDITIONS

1. Collected correspondence (1995), p. 156-159 .