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Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L2899 • Johan Ernst Gunnerus to Carl Linnaeus, 24 April 1761 n.s.
Dated d. 24 .April 1761. Sent from Trondheim (Norway) to Uppsala (Sweden). Written in Danish.

upSUMMARY

Johan Ernst GunnerusGunnerus, Johan Ernst
(1718-1773). Norwegian. Bishop of
Trondheim. Together with Gerhard
Schøning and Peter Friederich
Suhm he founded in 1760 Det Kongelige
Norske Videnskabers Selskab [The Royal
Norwegian Society of Sciences and
Letters]. Author of Flora
Norvegica
(1766-1776). Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
describes the richness of the diocese of Trondheim, especially regarding fish and seabirds. He has therefore been able to collect specimens ever since he arrived. He has also started to study Linnaeus’s works.

The first volume of Skrifter of the Society of Trondheim [Gunnerus refers to the publications of The Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters , Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers SelskabDet Kongelige Norske Videnskabers
Selskab, The Royal Norwegian Society of
Sciences and Letters
Norwegian.
Founded in 1760 by Johan Ernst Gunnerus,
Gerhard Schøning Peter Friederich
Suhm as the Trondhiemske Selskab (the
Trondheim Society). It received Royal
affirmation of its statues in 1767 and
became the Kongelige Norske Videnskabers
Selskab (the Royal Norwegian Society of
Sciences and Letters). Its publications
are Det Trondhiemske Selskabs
Skrifter
, 1-3 (1761-1765) and Det
Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs
Skrifter
, 4-5 (1768-1774).
, Det Trondhiemske Selskabs SkrifterDet Kongelige Norske Videnskabers
Selskab, The Royal Norwegian Society of
Sciences and Letters
Det
Trondhiemske Selskabs Skrifter
, 1-3
(1761-1765).
] is now in Denmark to be printed. In it Gunnerus has published a dissertation on the immortality of the soul ["Betragninger over sielens udødelighed"Gunnerus, Johan Ernst
"Betragninger over sielens
udødelighed", Det
Trondhiemske Selskabs Skrifter
, 1
(1761), 11-70.
] and another one on Ecclesiastes, III, 19 sqq ["Betragtning over Salom. Praedik. III"Gunnerus, Johan Ernst
"Betragtning over Salom. Praedik.
III. 19-22", Det Trondhiemske
Selskabs Skrifter
, 1 (1761), 71-95.
]. Gunnerus lists the other works that he has published in Skrifter:

1. A work which deals with the sea bird ”Havhest”, i.e. Procellaria groenlandica ["Om hav-hesten, en søe-fugl"Gunnerus, Johan Ernst "Om
hav-hesten, en søe-fugl",
Det Trondhiemske Selskabs
Skrifter
, 1 (1761), 182-202.
]. Gunnerus has found that Anton Rolandsson MartinMartin, Anton Rolandsson
(1729-1785). Swedish. Student of
medicine. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
has published a dissertation on this bird in the Acta of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences [Kungliga Svenska VetenskapsakademienKungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien,
Swedish. The Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Founded
in 1739.
, i. e. Kungliga Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar Kungliga
Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar

(1739-) (Transactions of the Royal
Swedish Academy of Sciences).
; Gunnerus refers to Martin’s "Beskrifning på en Procellaria, som finnes vid Norr-polen"Martin, Anton Rolandsson
"Beskrifning på en
Procellaria, som finnes vid
Norr-polen", KVAH, 20
(1759), 94-99.
].

2. A work on some birds covering: α)Colymbus articus sub gula nigro-purpurascens "Om nogle lom-artede fugle, (Colymbis)"Gunnerus, Johan Ernst "Om
nogle lom-artede fugle,
(Colymbis)", Det
Trondhiemske Selskabs Skrifter
, 1
(1761), 236-270.
, which Ole WormWorm, Ole (1588-1655). Danish.
Physician and antiquary. Collector of
curiosities.
has dealt with in Museum [Gunnerus refers to Worm’s Museum WormianumWorm, Ole Museum Wormianum:
seu historia rerum rariorum, tam
naturalium, quam artificialium, tam
domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quae
Hafniae Danorum in ædibus authoris
servantur
(Leiden, 1655).
] under the name Colymbus arcticus. It has also recently been described in Johann Daniel TitiusTitius, Johann Daniel
(1729-1796). German. Professor of
astronomy, Wittenberg.
, Neue gesellschaftliche Erzählungen für die Liebhaber der NaturlehreTitius, Johann Daniel Neue
gesellschaftliche Erzählungen
für die Liebhaber der Naturlehre,
der Haushaltungswissenschaft, der
Arzneykunst, und der Sitten
, ed. J.
D. Titius ( Leipzig 1758-1763), 1-4.
, 6, 1. It is probably Michael Christopher HanovHanov, Michael Christopher
(1695-1773). German. Professor of
philosophy and librarian, Danzig.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
who has written the article ["Von der Halbente, welche Lumme genannt wird"Hanov, Michael Christopher
"Von der Halbente, welche Lumme
genannt wird", in J. D. Titius,
ed., Neue gesellschaftliche
Erzählungen für die Liebhaber
der Naturlehre, der
Haushaltungswissenschaft, der
Arzneykunst, und der Sitten

(Leipzig, 1758), 1, 81-92.
]; ß) Colymbus articus fuscus sub gula rufus; γ) colymbus maximus Finnmarchicus; δ) Columba groenlandica major or Columbus grylle in Linnaeus’s Fauna SvecicaLinnaeus, Carl Fauna Svecica
sistens animalia Sveciae regni:
quadrupedia, aves, amphibia, pisces,
insecta, vermes, distributa per classes
& ordines, genera & species. Cum
differentiis specierum, synonymis
autorum, nominibus incolarum, locis
habitationum, descriptionibus
insectorum
(Stockholm, 1746).
Soulsby no. 1151.
, 124, but Alca grylle in Systema naturae, 10th editionLinnaeus, Carl Systema
naturae
, 10th edition (Stockholm
1758-1759). Soulsby no. 58.
; ε)"Borfjaerten" eller "Hys-Thomas", Friedrich Martens’sMartens, Friedrich (1635-1699).
German. Surgeon and barber, Hamburg.
and Johann Anderson’sAnderson, Johann (1674-1743).
German. Lawyer, member of the Hamburg
senate, mayor of Hamburg.
"Rotges" [Gunnerus refers to Martens’s Spitzbergische oder Groenlandische Reise-BeschreibungMartens, Friedrich
Spitzbergische oder Groenlandische
Reise-Beschreibung, gethan im Jahre
1671
(Hamburg, 1675).
and Anderson’s Nachrichten von Island, Gronland und der Strasse DavisAnderson, Johann Nachrichten
von Island, Gronland und der Strasse
Davis, zum wahren Nutzen der
Wissenschaften und der Handlung, mit
Kupfern, und einer nach den neuesten und
in diesem Werke angegebenen
Entdeckungen, genau eingerichteten
Landcharte; nebst einem Vorberichtr von
den Lebensumstanden des Herrn
Verfassers
(Hamburg, 1746).
], Jacob Theodor Klein’sKlein, Jacob Theodor
(1685-1759). German. Naturalist,
Dresden and Danzig. Director of the
Danziger Naturforscher-Gesellschaft. One
of Linnaeus’s opponents. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
Plotus columbarius,Columba groenlandica minor, etc [Gunnerus refers to Klein’s Stemmata aviumKlein, Jacob Theodor Stemmata
avium:quadraginta tabulis aeneis ornata
; accedunt nomenclatores, Polono-latinus
et Latino-polonus
(Leipzig, 1759).
and Verbesserte und vollständigere Historie der Vögel Klein, Jacob Theodor
Verbesserte und vollständigere
Historie der Vögel
(Danzig
& Leipzig, 1760).
]. It is also called Colymbus alle in Fauna Svecica but Alca alle in Systema naturae, 63, n. 6, etc.

3. A number of observations regarding minerals in Nordland and Finnmarken [Gunnerus refers to his own, "Adskillige efterretninger, fornemmelig angaaende mineralier i Nordland og Finmarken"Gunnerus, Johan Ernst
"Adskillige efterretninger,
fornemmelig angaaende mineralier i
Nordland og Finmarken", Det
Trondhiemske Selskabs Skrifter
, 1
(1761), 271-283.
].

Gunnerus mentions other dissertations that have been published by the Society of Sciences and Letters. Peter Friederich SuhmSuhm, Peter Friederich
(1728-1798). Danish. Historian and
book-collector. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
has written a dissertation on the taste of the present century regarding the sciences ["Naervaerende 18de seculi character"Suhm, Peter Friederich
"Naervaerende 18de seculi
character", Det Trondhiemske
Selskabs Skrifter
, 1 (1761),
96-128.
] and also observations to the Algemeine Welthistorie [Gunners refers to "Anmaerkninger over verdens almindelige historie"Suhm, Peter Friederich
"Anmaerkninger over verdens
almindelige historie", Det
Trondhiemske Selskabs Skrifter
, 1
(1761), 203-235.
]. Gerhard SchøningSchøning, Gerhard
(1722-1780). Norwegian. Historian.
Together with Johan Ernst Gunnerus and
Peter Friederich Suhm he founded in 1760
Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers
Selskab [The Royal Norwegian Society of
Sciences and Letters].
has written a contribution on the foundation of the storehouses of corn in Norway. etc. [Gunnerus refers to the two articles, "Betaenkning om offentlige forraads-huses opretning og indretning i Norge"Schøning, Gerhard
"Betaenkning om offentlige
forraads-huses opretning og indretning i
Norge", Det Trondhiemske
Selskabs Skrifter
, 1 (1761),
163-181.
and "Kort beretning om endeel uaar og misvaext"Schøning, Gerhard
"Kort beretning om endeel uaar og
misvaext, saerdeles i Trondhiems stift i
Norge", Det Trondhiemske
Selskabs Skrifter
, 1 (1761),
129-162.
]. Eric SchytteSchytte, Erik Norwegian.
Clergyman, at Lyngen and from 1776 at
Bodø, Norway.
, who is a missionary in Lyngen, has dealt with natural history in 1758 to 1759 ["Adskillige anmaerkningar"Schytte, Erik "Adskillige
anmaerkningar, insendte til biskopen i
Trondheim", Det Trondhiemske
Selskabs Skrifter
, 1 (1761),
284-293.
, "Fortegnelse över aegteviede"Schytte, Erik "Fortegnelse
över aegteviede, fødde og
døde i Trundheims stift for aaret
(1758, 1759, 1760)", Det
Trondhiemske Selskabs Skrifter
, 1
(1761), 294-296.
, "Capituls taxten i Trondheims stift"Schytte, Erik "Capituls
taxten i Trondheims stift for aarene
(1755, 1756, 1757, 1758, 1759,
1760)", Det Trondhiemske
Selskabs Skrifter
, 1 (1761) [Tabel].
]. Gunnerus encourages the missionaries to send contributions to the Society for publication in his Hans opvaekkelige hyrdebrevGunnerus, Johan Ernst Hans
opvaekkelige hyrdebrev til det
velaervaerdige, høj- og vellaerde
praesteskab i Trondhjems stift

(Trondhjem, 1758).
.

Gunnerus describes a fish in detail which is called ”Söö-Rotte”, ”sea rat”, and in the northern parts ”Hav-Katte”, ”sea cat” [Chimaera monstrosa] [Gunnerus published a detailed description of this fish in 1763, "Om hav-katten"Gunnerus, Johan Ernst "Om
hav-katten", Det Trondhiemske
Selskabs Skrifter
, 2 (1763),
270-312.
]. He has examined a male and female specimen from Byefjord, which he had received on the 13 April and 15 April, respectively. The female specimen has eggs that are big as those of a hen. The farmers in Nordland and Finnmarken add flour and then make cakes of them. The fishermen say that the eggs of the fish serve as food for her young fish until they crawl out. Oil can also be had from the fish. It is good for the eyes and also heals wounds. There is a reference to Holger Jacobaeus’sJacobaeus, Holger (1650-701).
Danish. Naturalist. Professor of
geography and history at the university
of Copenhagen 1674, of medicine 1698,
vice-chancellor 1695-1696.
,"Anatome piscis centrinis Italis pesco porco"Jacobaeus, Holger "Anatome
piscis centrinis Italis pesco
porco", in Thomaas Bartholin, ed.,
Thomae Bartholini Acta Medica et
Philosophica Hafniensia
,
(Copenhagen, 1680), V, 251 pp.
.

The fish Centrine, mentioned by Johannes LaurentzenLaurentzen, Johannes (c.
1648-1729). Danish. Royal printer to
the Danish court. Historian and
numismatist, engaged work with the royal
collections, the "Kunstkammer"
from ca. 1680. Responsible for the
second, enlarged edition of the
Museum regium (1710).
in Museum regium, 2nd editionJacobaeus, Holger & Johannes
Laurentzen
Museum regium, nunc
vero magna ex parte auctior uberibusque
commentariis praesertim autem quod
antiquitates, historiamque numismatum
Danicorum illustratum, accurante Johanne
Laurentzen
, 2nd ed. (Copehagen,
1710).
, and also by Worm, is probably the same as the one Pehr KalmKalm, Pehr (1716-1779).
Swedish. Botanist and traveller,
professor of natural history at
Åbo. Disciple of Linnaeus.
Travelled in North America 1748-1751.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
calls ”sea mouse” in his Pehr Kalms Wästgötha och Bahusländska resaKalm, Pehr Pehr Kalms
Wästgötha och
Bahusländska resa förrettad
år 1742 : med anmärkningar
uti historia naturali, physique,
medicine, oeconomie, antiquiteter etc.
jemte nödige figurer

(Stockholm, 1746).
, p. 216. It goes by the same name in Denmark, i.e. ”Havmuus” or ”Sömuus”. Erik PontoppidanPontoppidan, Erik (1698-1764).
Danish. Author, bishop at Bergen,
historian and antiquary, vice-chancellor
at the university of Copenhagen.
calls it ”Guulhaa”[Gunnerus refers to Pontoppidan’s Det første forsøg paa Norges naturlige historiePontoppidan, Erik Det
første forsøg paa Norges
naturlige historie, forestillende dette
kongeriges luft, grund, fjeld, vinde,
vaexter, metaller, etc
(Copenhagen,
1752-1753).
]. Gunnerus is uncertain regarding which fish Linnaeus talks about. He has ordered works by Peter ArtediArtedi, Peter (1705-1735).
Swedish. Ichtyologist. Close friend of
Linnaeus.
, Francis WillughbyWillughby, Francis (1635-1672).
British. Zoologist, whose works on
ornithology and ichtyology were
important sources of information before
Linnaeus.
and John RayRay, John (1627-1705).
British. Naturalist and clergyman. One
of the most influential botanists before
Linnaeus.
but not yet received them [these works are: Ichthyologia sive opera omnia de piscibusArtedi, Peter Ichthyologia
sive opera omnia de piscibus, scilicet:
Bibliotheca ichthyologica. Philosophia
ichthyologica. Genera piscium. Synonymia
specierum. Descriptiones specierum.
Omnia in hoc genere perfectiora, quam
antea ulla. Posthuma vindicavit,
recognovit, coaptavit & edidit
Carolus Linnaeus
(Leiden 1738).
, De historia pisciumWillughby, Francis De
historia piscium libri quattuor [...] In
quibus non tantum de piscibus in genere
agitur, sed & species omnes, tum ab
aliis traditae, tum novae & nondum
editae bene multae, naturae ductum
servante methodo dispositae, accurate
describuntur. Earumque effigies,
quotquot haberi potuere, vel ad vivum
delineatae, vel ad optima exemplaria
impressa; artifici manu elegantissime in
aes incisae, ad descriptiones
illustrandas exhibentur
, I-IV
(Oxford 1685-1686).
, Synopsis methodica avium & pisciumRay, John Synopsis methodica
avium & piscium; opus posthumus,
quod vivus recensuit & perfecit ipse
insignissimus author: in quo multas
species, in ipsius ornithologia &
ichtyologia desideratas, adjecit;
metodumque suam piscium naturae magis
convenientem reddit. Cum appendice,
& iconibus
(London 1713).
]. John JonstonJonston, John (1603-1675).
British. Physician and botanist in
Cambridge, Silesia and Poland.
means that Centrine is another fish than the ”Hav-Katte” [Gunnerus refers to Jonstons Historiae naturalis de quadrupedibusJonston, John Historiae
naturalis de quadrupedibus

(Amsterdam, 1657).
].

Gunnerus discusses a small fish that is a member of the Branchiostegi. It is similar to the Jugulares. It cannot be found in Linnaeus’s Systema naturae.

Gunnerus describes a foreign dead bird, which he found at an islet at Smölen in Romsdalen. It is big as a turkey. He believes it to be an Otis, but he does not know whether it is tarda, arabs or tetrax.

Gunnerus sends a picture of the ”Hav-Katte”.

P.S. 1. N. B. Gunnerus is now certain that the fish he discussed above really belongs to the Jugulares.

P.S. 2. Pontoppidan has three kinds of ”Skarv”, i.e. ”Hviidlaar” or ”Skreiskarv”, ”Topskarv”, and ”Sletbag”. There are references to Johann Samuel Halle’sHalle, Johann Samuel
(1727-1810). German.
Die Naturgeschichte der ThiereHalle, Johann Samuel Die
Naturgeschichte der Thiere in
sistematischer Ordnung
, 2 vols.
(Berlin, 1757-1760).
and Linnaeus’s Fauna Svecica.

P.S. 3. Gunnerus has a Lagopus sylvaticus which is bigger than the Lagopus alpinus.

P.S. 4. Gunnerus discusses a seabird that he believes to be Anser or Pelecanus bassanus. He has not yet seen the Piscator.

P.S. 5. Gunnerus believes ”Skua höieri”to be Larus parasiticus totus cinereofuscus. He has studied Abraham Gotthelf Kästner’sKästner, Abraham Gotthelf
(1719-1800). German. Mathematician and
epigrammatist.
translation of the Swedish Acta XV [Gunners refers to the German translation of Nils GisslersGissler, Nils (1715-1771).
Swedish. Logices, physices et medicinae
lector, Härnösand.
"Anmärkningar om labben"Gissler, Nils
"Anmärkningar om labben.
Sterna, rectricibus maximis nigris,
Faun. Suec. 129
", KVAH,
14 (1753) , 291-293.
, "Anmerkungen von der Labben"Gissler, Nils "Anmerkungen
von der Labben,rectricibus maximis
nigris, Faun. Suec.
129",
Der Königlicher Schwedischer
Akademie der Wissenschaften
Abhandlingen, aus der naturlehre,
[etc.], auf das Jahr 1753
, 15
(1756). 296-297.
in Kungliga Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar].

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. (LS, VI, 23-24). [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

upEDITIONS

1. Brevveksling (1976), p. 1-12 .