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Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L2926 • Nicolaas Laurens Burman to Carl Linnaeus, 18 July 1761 n.s.
Dated 18 Iulii 1761. Sent from Amsterdam (Netherlands) to (). Written in Latin.

Nobilissimo et Clarissimo Viro,
Carolo Linnaeo Eq[uiti],
in Academia Upsaliensi Professori celeberrimo &c. &c. &c.,
S[alutem] P[lurimam] D[icit]
N[icolaus] L[aurentius] Burmannus.

Eodem [die], quo acceptissimae Tuae litterae tradebantur ad D[omi]num Bal- guerie, miseram Gallinas lanigeras quatuor cum Gallo, Haleces & pro dulcissima mea Sophia libum Daventricum, quae, ut Tibi bene procurentur, spero. Num vero omnes, quas miserim nigra cute sint dubito; de Gallo certissime scio, sed Gallinae, quae vulgarioribus immixtae fuere, paululum degeneratae sunt, nec plures habebamus, exceptis duabus, quae pullos ducebant; ob nigram cutem enim non adeo aestimamus, cum mensae amicis propinari nequeant ob nigredinem, licet melius sapiant.

Rogavi diversorii Blauwjan hospitem de psittaco caeruleo, sed nollet intra tercentum florenos vendere, quod mihi nimis carum videbatur.

D[omi]ni Clercquii papilionum quasdam figuras apud eum vidi, quae erant omnium pulcherrimae, librumque data occasione emam, si modo ad nostros Bibliopolas transmittetur; salutes, quaeso, amicissimos illos viros meo nomine; Clerquium nempe et Archiatrum Beck, qui multa et grata mihi praestitere eo, quo, Holmiae versatus fuerim, tempore, et sequenti septimana, si tempus supererit, ad Eos viros litteras dare animus est.

Cl[arissimi] Halleri liber de Orchidibus vocatur Orchidum classis constituta nec loco, ubi prostant, nec impressionis anno, notatis, nec quoque alterius libri, qui inscribitur A[lberti] Halleri Emendationes et Auctuaria ad Stirpium Helveticarum Historiam, ambo in 4to. Cum vero crederem primam hujus exemplaris, quod Nob[ilissimus] ille vir Parenti meo obtulerit, paginam nimia festinatione deficere, ab alio hujus rei melius certiorem fieri posses, nec scio, quod hic venales prostent; alias libentissime mitterem. Scheuchzeri Zizaniam, videbo, num pro Te recipere queam ab uno vel altero amico Leydensi; est tantummodo descriptio et delineatio Zizaniae, quam dissertationi ejus de alimentis farinaceis adjunxit; hanc spero Tibi procuraturum; si vero non possem, modo scribas ad Cl[arissimum] Gesnerum, a quo Parenti meo commendatus fuerit.

Miror, quod Catalogum illum Conchyliorum nondum receperis; si bene memini, 3 Aprilis die D[omi]no Balguerio tradidi fasciculum, in quo magna quantitas seminum Melonum pro Te, D[omi]no de Geer & Hortulano illo Horti regii Burmanno, una cum fasciculo 8vo pro D[omi]no Salvio librario Holmensi, quem adhucdum ei debebam, et libum Daventricum pro Tua Filiola, addideramque, cum tunc temporis ventus erat maxime secundus, tres Catalogos pro Te, D[omi]no de Geer & Siervoogel, praecipue eam ob caussam cum multa insecta sicca, quae tu & D[omi]nus de Geer praeprimis amant, intererant Surinamensia, quorumque possessor per plures annos adfuisset Surinamae, unaque erat cochlea wenteltrap, pro quo saepius 1000 florenos recusaverat et plura alia praestantia rarioraque; emi ibi quaedam marina, sed res domesticae non permittunt, ut collectioni Conchyliorum, quae certissime maxime amarem, me tradam, cum carissimo hic venduntur pretio.

D[omi]ni Forskållii fortunam magnopere gaudeo, speroque, quod Deus O[mnipotens] eum salva vita rediturum permittat; qualis honestus vir fuerit, primo Hafniae, ubi solus familiarius cum eo conversarer, didici, ejusque integritas et bona indoles mihi ibi prius apparuere. Si salvus redeat, eum semper habebo amicum, et quaecunque potero grata praestabo.

Libenter omnia semina, quae expetis, quaecumque possum, Tibi subministrabo, si mihi velis remittere quae possides, quaeque hic in horto deficiunt quaeque promisisti; tunc enim invicem inservire possumus et alias taediosum est.

Geraniorum semina colligam, sed cucullatum et acetosum difficile per semina propagatur; forsan melius per ramulos fictili includendos, quos sequenti automno vel primo vere mittere possem, unacum arbuscula quadam Hydrangeae, quae quam pulcherrime floret et laetissime in praedio nostro viget; ramulos quatuor pro Te & Carissimo Tuo filio siccavi, quas quoque tunc mittam.

LíAdmiralii liber de Papilionibus nondum completus est, nec forsan unquam fiet; continet aliquot tabulas in Folio, ubi plantis praecipue insident insecta, eodem fere modo, si bene memini, ac in illo libro, quod inscribitur Merian erucarum ortus in 4to. Prima data occasione illum adibo, pretiumque postea Tibi significabo.

Ingentes et praestantiores hacce aestate accepimus bulbos Capenses, inter quos plura tubera Geraniorum, quae jamdum progerminare incipiunt, ut et Haemanthus ciliatus, sed mirandum, quod pauci et fere nulli praecipue ex bulbis majoribus, quos praecedenti anno accepimus, flores produxere, quod quam maxime doluimus, cum admodum pulchri erant. Floruit tamen nova Geranii species foliis Acetosae, floribus ab omnibus cognitis diversa petalis linearibus reflexis, colore carnosis, Scapo nudo prolifero, ut et altera foliis tristi similibus sed flore albo, maculato instar pinnati, et flore carneo plane, quae tamen vegetandi modo cum tristi maxime conveniunt, hinc que, ut puto, pro varietatibus tantum habendae.

Hisce exceptis accepimus iterum pulcherrimum Herbarium vivum Capense, ubi plura nondum visa intersunt, trecentarum ad minimum plantarum, tentaboque, post annum unum et alteram, floram editurum [sic] Capensem, ubi nil nisi figuras ex siccis speciminibus desumtis addam. Si nunc velles specimina illa sequenti anno habere quae in duplo possidemus, remittas modo catalogum eorum, quae nondum possides; tunc possem Tibi transmittere, si mittas plantas eas, quas adhucdum a me domi tuae servasti.

Hocce anno accepimus in horto nostro Arbusculam ex ramo arte detracto, Phyllanthi illius praestantis, quae e crenis foliorum flores producit, et quotannis floret; credo, quod sola arbuscula sit, quae per plures annos in Europa fuit; saltem in Belgio nostro quaedam nova ex seminibus adhucdum accepimus, sed quae nondum florent, excepto unico quae florere incipit et forsan ex Lepidii genere erit, sed florem decerpam et mittam, sique semina proferat autumno, pro Filio tuo addam, cum ex ejus classe sit. Co¬rollam vero nunquam observavi apertam.

An jamdum vidisti Gerardi plantas e Galloprovincia, liber nuper Parisiis editus in 8vo cum quibusdam figuris?

Ericetum Royeni, diu jamdum desideratum, exspectamus, ut audivi, hacce aestate, forte saltem.

Pessimam hocce anno hacce in regione habemus aestatem, ubi pessimi ventus & pluvia plantas infestant, quo fit, ut semina non tam laete progerminent ac quidem aliis annis soleant.

Dicunt et hic quoque me propediem uxorem ducturum, nomineque jamdum distinguunt; mihi tamen adhucdum ignotae omnes sunt, verum quidem est, quod plures viderim, quas forte accipere possem. Quum vero multae circumstantiae sint examinandae et bene perpendendae, antequam res tanti momenti absolvatur, melius duxi aliquantisper exspectare, quum non unico anno, sed, si sors ita tulerit, per totam aetatem feliciter vel infelicissimam vitam transigere debeamus; ducere enim facile, sed dimittere difficile.

Gladiolus plicatus hac aestate floruit quoque, ut et Moraea Miller[i]. Corolla hujus nunquam fere explicata, sed petala semper convolutae et mirae fuit structurae; semina pro te colligam & mittam, cum pessime exsiccetur; floruit jamdum primo vere; floruit quoque altera gladioli species, quorum petala convoluta quasi in spiram eodem modo uti folia fritillariae illius capensis, sine dubio Tibi notae, cujus bulbum ante 4tuor annos accepimus.

Mense Septembri habebitur iterum auctio praestantium Conchyliorum, lacertarum, petrefactorum et quorundam aliorum animalium in liquore contentorum, forte & quorundam Insectorum; si scirem, quomodo mitterem catalogum, sequenti mense lubens facerem.

Meo nomine Salutes, quaeso, Nobiliss[imam] Conjugem, reliquosque, quos noverim amicos Upsalienses.

Vale!

Dabam Amstelaedami 18 Julii 1761.

Mox scripsi ad Prof[essorem] D[ominum] Van Royen, num ad Te mittere vellet Scheuzeri Zizaniae descriptionem; sine dubio faciet, misique dissertationes, quas pro Illo a te mecum ex Suecia sumsi.

Ante quatuordecim dies, cum Leydae versarer apud seniorem Gronovium, vidi Pisces Capenses, eodem modo exsiccatos, ut Junior solitus fuit, quos inde acceperat.

Incendio in navi exorto cum quo Libri, quos a Salvio pro fasciculis emeram, reliquaque bona huc versus transmissa fuere; magna pars librorum fuit mutilata et plane laesa, ita ut nullius usus sit; quum nunc opus illud Nob[ilissimi] de Geer de Insectis, exceptis aliquot paginis, liberum evaserit, ab eo petam, num remittere vellet plagellas illas, quae incendio illo mutilatae fuere, quas notabo et, ut spero, accipiam praecipue cum ejus sumtibus sit impressum opus & nullae figurae laesae fuerint.

In horto Leydensi hocce anno accepere novam Geranii speciem foliis trilobis crenatis, floribus et crescendi modo cicutariorum instar, ut et apud florum cultorem ibi, nomine Van Hazen, alteram speciem, quae quoad foliaturam optime conveniret, ut et crescendi modum cum Gruino foliis pinnatis sed foliolis ovatis alternis serratis, floribus Cicutariorum; nescio, quo me vertam, si tot novae species in unico genere occurrant; distinctio enim, si tantum a floribus desumatur, quam maxime difficile foret et manca, antequam flores explicaverint; vetant quoque tristium varietates et plures aliae, ut mihi saltem videtur. Si rescribas, quaeso, dicas, an Altheoides quoque in quodam libro sit depicta, num conveniat fere vel proximo adfinis sit Malacoidi sed floribus magis rubicundis; tunc forsan aderit in horto nostro; alias non memini unquam vidisse.

Si velles mittere semina ex classe monadelphiae rariora, gratissimum faceres; possides enim aliquot hic loci adhucdum incognita, ut Sida alba, quam memini, aliaeque forsan ex allatis seminibus hocce anno progerminata. Floret apud nos Cyanella.

An planta illa, cujus ramulum hic mitto, foret Hesperis africana major flore caeruleo Coronopi folio Tourn[efortii] inst[itutionum] 203?

Semina addidi quarundam plantarum Africanarum vel potius bul- borum.

In novis publicis hodiernis vidi, quod tota Phalunensium urbs in- cendio fuit devastata; non spero vero, quod Consanguinei Vestri inde detrimentum ceperint.

Salutat Te Domumque Tuam Carissimus meus Parens, qui, si aliquid scribendum habeat, litteras Tibi dabit.

Mox accessit D[omi]nus Blom, quem Upsaliae noveram, quae [sic] heri ex Aquis Granis redux bene valet. Te salutat & cras mecum prandium in praedio sumet, putatque cum ejus comite post mensem domum reversus esse.

Litteras Carissimi tui Filii alio die respondebo, cum oblitus fuerim me¬cum ex praedio nostro, ubi degimus plerumque aestatis tempore, sumere.

Inclusi litteras ad D[omi]n[um] Momma, cum sine dubio ad eum scribes de rebus quas misi, quarum caussa ego quoque ad eum scripsi.

Vale!

upSUMMARY

The same day as Nikolaas Laurens BurmanBurman, Nicolaas Laurens
(1734-1793). Dutch. Professor of
botany. Linnaeusís pupil in Uppsala in
1760. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
received Linnaeusís letter[Linnaeus to Burman, 2 July 1761Letter L2929 he delivered to Daniel BalguerieBalguerie, Daniel (1733-1788).
Swedish. Swedish agent in Amsterdam,
succeeded his father Pierre Balguerie.
, four fleecy hens and a cock, roe and a Deventer cake for ďhis sweet" Sophia [Sophia LinnaeaLinnaea, Sophia (1757-1830).
Swedish. Daughter of Carl Linnaeus and
Sara Elisabet Linnaea. Sister of Carl
Linnaeus the Younger and of Elisabeth
Christina, Louisa and Sara Christina
Linnaea. Wife of Samuel Christoffer
Duse.
]. Burman is not sure that all the hens have black skin. Though they taste rather good, they cannot be served to guests because of the black skin.

Burman asked the innkeeper of Blauwjan[Jan BlauwBlauw, Jan Dutch. Merchant.
The first keeper of an inn in Amsterdam,
called Blaauwe Jan, where animals from
foreign countries and curiosities were
shown.
] about the blue parrot but he found the price too high.

Burman has seen some of Carl Alexander ClerckísClerck, Carl Alexander
(1709-1765). Swedish. Entomologist.
Assessor in Stockholm. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
illustrations of butterflies at his home, and he will buy the book [Burman refers to the Icones insectorum rariorumIClerck, Carl Alexander Icones
insectorum rariorum cum nominibus eorum
trivialibus, locisqve e C: Linnaei [...
] Syst: nat: allegatis
, 2 vol.,
(Stockholm 1759-1765).
] as soon as it is available in Holland. He sends his best regards to Clerck and to Abraham BäckBäck, Abraham (1713-1795).
Swedish. Physician, president of the
Collegium Medicum, Stockholm. Close
friend of Linnaeus. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
, and, if he has time, he will write to them next week.

The title of Albrecht von HallerísHaller, Albrecht von
(1708-1777). Swiss. Naturalist and
poet, professor of medicine, botany,
anatomy and surgery at Göttingen
1736-1753. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
book is "Orchidum classis constituta"Haller, Albrecht von ďOrchidum
classis constitutaĒ, Acta helvetica,
physico-mathematico-botanico-medica

4 (Basle, 1760), 82-166.
, but he does not know the place and year of publication. The same goes for the other book "Emendationes et Auctuaria ad stirpium Helveticarum Historiam" [Burman means Ad enumerationem stirpium helveticarum emendationes et auctariaHaller, Albrecht von Ad
enumerationem stirpium helveticarum
emendationes et auctaria
, I,
([Bern] [1759]).
]. His father [Johannes BurmanBurman, Johannes (1707-1779).
Dutch. Botanist, professor of medicine
in Amsterdam. Close friend of Linnaeus.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
] has received a copy from the author but with one page missing. If the books were on sale in Holland he would send them. He will try to get Johannes ScheuchzerísScheuchzer, Johannes ?. book on Zinzania from some friend in Leiden. If he does not succeed he asks Linnaeus to write to Johan GesnerGessner, Johannes (1709-1790).
Swiss. Naturalist, Zürich.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
.

Burman is surprised that Linnaeus has not yet received the catalogue of conchylia, which he sent probably on 3 April. He also sent seeds of melon to Linnaeus, Charles de GeerDe Geer, Charles (1720-1778).
Swedish. Entomologist and natural
history collector, Leufsta Bruk. Member
of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
in Stockholm and Académie des
sciences, Paris. Corresponded with
Réaumur, Bonnet and other
naturalists. Husband of Catharina
Charlotta Ribbing and father of Emanuel
De Geer. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
and the gardener of the castleís garden Arvid BurmanBurman, Arvid Swedish. Tenant
of the Castle Garden in Uppsala.
, and a fascicle for the printer Lars SalviusSalvius, Lars (1706-1773).
Swedish. Printer, bookseller, publisher.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
in Stockholm. Burman also sent a Deventer cake to Linnaeusís little daughter Sophia LinnaeaLinnaea, Sophia (1757-1830).
Swedish. Daughter of Carl Linnaeus and
Sara Elisabet Linnaea. Sister of Carl
Linnaeus the Younger and of Elisabeth
Christina, Louisa and Sara Christina
Linnaea. Wife of Samuel Christoffer
Duse.
, and three catalogues for Linnaeus, De Geer and Samuel ZiervogelZiervogel, Samuel (1730-1793).
Swedish. Supervisor of Sätra Brunn.
. There were also a lot of Surinamese insects, which Linnaeus and de Geer like, and an expensive shell, "wenteltrap". Burman bought some objects from the sea but could not afford to buy the whole collection of conchylia.

It pleases Burman to see that Peter ForsskålForsskål, Peter
(1732-1763). Swedish. Naturalist and
explorer. Linnaeusís student, professor
in Denmark in 1759. Joined a Danish
expedition to Egypt and Arabia in 1761.
Died at Jerîm, Arabia.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
is successful, and he hopes that he will return safe. He is a very honourable man, whom Burman learned when he stayed with him in Copenhagen. He will always be Burmanís friend, and he will do all he can for him. Burman will send all the seeds that Linnaeus wants, and he hopes that Linnaeus will do the same; otherwise it will be fatiguing.

Burman will collect Geranium seeds but it is difficult to propagate cucullatum and acetosum by seeds. It is better to send cuttings in a pot in the autumn or next spring. He will also send a shrub, Hydrangea, flowering now on their estate. He has dried four branches for Linnaeus and his son [Carl Linnaeus the YoungerLinnaeus the Younger, Carl
(1741-1783). Swedish. Botanist. Son of
Carl Linnaeus and Sara Elisabet Linnaea.
Brother of Elisabeth Christina, Louisa,
Sara Christina and Sophia Linnaea.
Attended his fatherís lectures, had
private tutors (Löfling, Rolander,
Solander and Falk, all Linnaeusís
students). Demonstrator of botany at
Uppsala. Succeeded his
father.
].

Jacob LíAdmiralísL´Admiral, Jacob
(1700-1770). Dutch. Engraver and
illustrator of plants and insects.
book on butterflies [Naauwkeurige WaarneemingenL´Admiral, Jacob
Naauwkeurige Waarneemingen van Veele
Gestaltverwisselende Gekorvene
Diertjer
(Amsterdam, [1740]).
], is not yet complete and perhaps it will never be. It is illustrated in the same way as Maria Sibylla MerianísMerian, Maria Sibylla
(1647-1717). German. Entomologist and
artist. Published Metamorphosis
insectorum Surinamensium
(1705).
book Erucarum ortusMerian, Maria Sibylla
Erucarum ortus, alimentum et paradoxa
metamorphosis, in qua origo, pabulum,
transformatio ... tempus, locus et
proprietates erucarum, vermium,
papilionum, phalaenarum, muscarum,
aliorumque hujusmodi exsanguium
animalculorum exhibentur
(Amsterdam,
[1718]).
. Burman will tell Linnaeus the price later.

The Burmans have received Cape bulbs this summer, among them many Geranium tubers that have begun to germinate, as Haemanthus ciliatus. A new species of Geranium that ought to be considered as a variety is also flowering.

The Burmans have received a very beautiful herbarium of at least 300 live Cape plants, many yet unknown. In one or two years Burman will publish a Flora Capensis [this work was added to Burmanís Flora IndicaBurman, Nicolaas Laurens
Flora Indica: cui accedit series
zoophytorum Indicorum, nec non prodromus
florae Capensis
(Leiden &
Amsterdam, 1768).
, published in 1768]. He will send those he has in duplicate if Linnaeus sends a list of those he does not possess and the plants he has reserved for Burman.

In their garden the Burmans have a shrub, Phyllanthus, which produces flowers from the crena of the leaves. Burman thinks that this is the only shrub like it in Europe or at least in Holland.

Only one of the new seeds flowers, perhaps a flower of the genus Lepidium. Burman will cut off a flower and send it, and if it has seeds he will send them in the autumn to Linnaeusís son, since it belongs to his class. Burman has never observed its corolla open.

Burman wonders if Linnaeus has seen Louis GérardísGérard, Louis
(1733-1819). French. Botanist,
Cotignac, Provence. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
Flora Gallo-ProvincialisGérard, Louis Flora
gallo-provincialis, cum iconibus
aeneis
(Paris 1761).
, recently published in Paris. Adriaan van RoyenísRoyen, Adriaan van (1705-1779).
Dutch. Professor of botany, director of
the botanical garden of Leiden.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
Ericetum is expected this summer [Burman refers to van Royenís "Ericetum africanum" which was never completed but for some 40 ilustrations].

The summer this year has been very bad with unfavourable winds and rain.

The people where Burman lives also say that he will marry soon, they even mention names but nobody that Burman knows. He has seen many possible girls, that is true, but this is something that must be considered carefully before a decision can be made, since it is not a question of year, but a whole life, that will be happy or unhappy.

Burman will collect and send seeds from Gladiolus plicatus and moraea, which flower this summer. Another species of Gladiolus is also flowering. The petals are rolled in the same way as the leaves of the Cape Fritillaria, which Linnaeus knows.

Conchylia, lizards, fossils and some other animals in liquid, maybe also insects, will be sold by auction in September. Burman could send a catalogue next month.

Burman has written to van Royen and asked him to send Scheuchzerís description of Zizania to Linnaeus. Burman also forwarded Linnaeusís dissertations.

Two weeks ago Burman was in Leiden seeing the elder Gronoviusís [Johan FrederikGronoviusGronovius, Johan Frederik
(1690-1762). Dutch. Naturalist, senator
of Leiden. Linnaeusís benefactor and
friend. Published Flora Virginica
(1743, 1762) together with John Clayton.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
] Cape fishes.

There was a fire on board the ship that carried Burmanís books, which he bought from Lars SalviusSalvius, Lars (1706-1773).
Swedish. Printer, bookseller, publisher.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
. Most of the books were damaged except Charles De GeerísDe Geer, Charles (1720-1778).
Swedish. Entomologist and natural
history collector, Leufsta Bruk. Member
of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
in Stockholm and Académie des
sciences, Paris. Corresponded with
Réaumur, Bonnet and other
naturalists. Husband of Catharina
Charlotta Ribbing and father of Emanuel
De Geer. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
on insects [Memoires pour servir a líhistoire des insectesDe Geer, Charles Memoires
pour servir a l'histoire des
insectes
, 8 vol. (Stockholm
1752-1778).
] where only a few pages were destroyed. Burman will try to have them replaced.

In the Leiden University Botanical Garden Burman has seen a new species of Geranium growing like cicutarium. The gardener van Hazenvan Hazen, Dutch. Gardener at
the Leiden University Botanical Garden.
also had another species growing similar to gruinum, but with flowers similar to cicutarium. Burman does not know what to do with all these species. It is very difficult to distinguish them from each other by studying only the flowers. Burman asks Linnaeus if there is an illustration of Altheoides in some book, and if it is similar to Malacoides. Perhaps it is possible to find it in Burmanís garden.

Burman asks Linnaeus to send some rare seeds of the class monadelphia. Linnaeus possesses some, e.g. Sida alba, as far as Burman can remember. The Cyanella flowers.

Burman sends a branchlet. Is it a Hesperis africana maior? He also adds some seeds of African plants or bulbs.

Burman has seen in the newspapers that the town Falun in Sweden has burnt down. He hopes that it has not done any harm to Linnaeusís relatives.

Burmanís father sends his regards to Linnaeus and his family. Carl Magnus BlomBlom, Carl Magnus (1737-1815).
Swedish. Studied in Uppsala under
Linnaeus 1755-1763. Provincial physician
in Dalecarlia. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
, whom Burman met in Uppsala, is visiting Burman now on his way from Aachen. He sends his best regards to Linnaeus.

Burman will answer to Linnaeusís sonís letter another day since he forgot it at the estate.

Burman encloses a letter to Peter Momma.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. (LS, II, 499-500). [1] [2] [3]

upEDITIONS

1. Bref och skrifvelser (1943), vol. II:2, p. 215-219   p.215  p.216  p.217  p.218  p.219.