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C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L2965 • Peter Forsskål to Carl Linnaeus, 4 September 1761 n.s.
Dated 4 Sept. 1761. Sent from Istanbul (Turkey) to Uppsala (Sweden). Written in Swedish.

Constantinople d[en] 4. Sept[ember] 1761.

Wälborne Herr Archiater
och Riddare af Kongl[ige] Nordstjerne Orden.

Helt nyligen fick jag här en glad post, neml[ige]n min nuwarande Konungs rena befallning att skicka frön af de rara wäxter jag finner på resan imediate till de förnämsta botaniska trägårdar och deribland till Upsala. Det är dock de i Danmark rådandes wilja, att resan skall wara till sciencens allmänna bästa, ehuru några egna små hufwud sökt intriguera fram ett helt annat system. Jag gjorde ansökning och föreställning härom i bref från Marseille, och det fick så god utgång. Tillika förestälte jag ock rent H[err] Archiaterns honetta oppförsel med Löflingens observationer, att allt derwid skedde med Spanska Konungens consence och alt wändes till hans heder. Att ock H[err] Archiatern äfwen mot apothecar Günther wiste så mycken erkänsamhet anförde jag billigt som ett klart bewis huru H. Archiater bemöter dem, som bidraga det minsta till sciencens uppkomst. Och jag tror ej annat än att den misstanke mot H[err] Archiatern, som några i Köpenhamn gjordt sig så mycken möda att uppwäcka är förswunnen. Konungens befallning är att jag tillika skall anmäla att Hans Maj[es]t[ät] will nådigt anse, då från botaniska trägårdar ock skickas till Köpenhamns hortus frön och lökar af rara örter, och hwad man der ej förr har. Detta under address till Prof[essor] OEder, som i min tanke är den enda af de studerte naturalister i Köpenhamn hos hwilken något solidité finns. Jag arbetar nu med dubbelt nöje sedan jag tror mig arbeta för sciencen. Näst hortus Hafniensis skall altid Upsala ha billigt prae hos mig. jag wet att örter ingenstäds bli bättre wårdade och bättre betraktade. Efter innelagda oppsats skickas frön, som jag lämnar till Swenska Envoyén H[err] von Celsing. de skickas af honom med ryska courierer till Petersburg, och med Swenska courierer till Stockholm från Petersburg. dit kostar transporten intet. ty courierer gå esomoftast, och för bekantskap mellan ministrarna ta de små paqueter med sig. Jag tror derföre, att de skola komma tidigt fram. Jag will addressera dem till H[err] Secretair Wargentin, som är i Stockholm, el[le]r till Swenska W[ettenskaps] Ac[ademien] der. Jag har tagit dem, som jag ej mins mig sedt i Upsala Trägård, och dem som jag behöfwer upplysning om. H[err] Arahiatern behagar nämna dem med den widsatta numren, och låta mig weta hwar jag trodt el[le]r gissat orätt. Bref till mig må altid ställas till Constantinople och addresseras att lämnas till danska Envoyén, så får jag dem nog. Till Constantinople skall jag ock widare w[ill] G[ud] skicka frön, att af H[err] Envoyén Celsing befordras som sagt är öfwer Petersburg

Här i staden har jag warit mycket occuperad med de samlade naturaliers rangerande och inpackande, så att jag ock derföre mot min wilja och längtan dragits altförmycket från flora och landsbygden. Jag skickar härifrån hem en hop artiga naturalier efter min tanka. Få se hur den förstlingen anses.

Mäst alla frön har jag lämnat in capsulis, det war mig wid trägit arbete wigare, och som jag tror för örterna nyttigare. bara ej hortulanus tar capsula el[le]r calyx fructus och sår som frö, t. ex. No 50, som nog liknar ett frö med sin 8kantiga calyx. Gräsen i synnerhet lära wäl behöfwa renas från all gluma, om de skola gro.

Herr Archiaterns bref till mig kunna ställas hit på Constantinople med påskrift chez Monsieur l’ Envoyé de Dannemarc. Under den address fick jag ock nyl[ige]n Herr Archiaterns af d[en] 30 Jun[ii] som högel[ige]n fägnade mig. Herr Envoyén skaffar wäl brefwen widare till mig.

W[älborne] H[err] Archiaterns och Riddarens ödmjuka tjänare P[etrus] Forsskål.

P. S. 1. Wid ankomsten hit skref jag H[err] Arch[iatern] till på Stockholm under min Fars couvert. Det war w[id] p[ass] sist i Jul[ii] månad.

[a][a] : MS1 [added in the left margin
f. 244v; there is no indication of where
it should be inserted
]
P. S. 2. Conchylie samlaren i Köpenhamn heter ej Sprengler, utan Spengler. Under den tid jag warit här har Constantinople passerat för pestfritt, men på Constantinopels wis, så att jag fådt höra pest i 2 hus på samma gata, der jag bodt, fast det är ministrarnas och den säkraste gatan i förstaden Pera, der wi straxt wid ankomsten blefwo alla intagna i danska Envoyens hus. Men man häpnar ej öfwer pesten här som hos oss. Man ruskar litet på axlarna, och eviterar communication, som wi wid koppor och rödsot. Jag reste en gång ut på landet, och måste då fara tätt förbi en by der pest war.

[b][b] : MS1 [added in the left margin
f. 244r; there is no indication of where
it should be inserted
]
P. S. 3. Jag har ej än fådt lof att resa hem om Africa och Cap[ut] B[onae] Spei, som jag begärt, men wäntar och arbetar än derpå. Jag ber hälsa Senatus academicus, i synnerhet Herr C[antzli] R[ådet] Ihre och H[err] Professor Ziervogel, mina goda wärdar. Om jag hinner will jag skrifwa H[err] Archiatern än till härifrån sub sigillo volante, med några observationer uti. I morgon skall wåra saker om bord; wi gå till Alexandria directe.

[c][c] : MS1 [added in the left margin
f. 244r; there is no indication of where
it should be inserted
]
P.S. 4. Jag har nu sedan skrifwit till H[err] Archiatern ett bref på tyska om 3 nya genera af mollusca etc, hwilket bref går öppet under Hofmarskalks Gref Moltkes couvert härifrån.

A la Societé
Royale des sciences à Upsala.

upSUMMARY

Peter ForsskålForsskål, Peter
(1732-1763). Swedish. Naturalist and
explorer. Linnaeus’s student, professor
in Denmark in 1759. Joined a Danish
expedition to Egypt and Arabia in 1761.
Died at Jerîm, Arabia.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
has good news. The King of Denmark [Frederik VFrederik V, (1723-1766).
Danish. King of Denmark. Reigned
1746-1766.
] has given him his permission to send home seeds to important botanical gardens, among others to Uppsala. It is his wish that science should benefit from this expedition, although some people have tried to scheme up quite another system. Forsskål applied for this in a letter which he sent from Marseille, and then he also referred to Linnaeus’s negotiations regarding Pehr Löfling’sLöfling, Pehr (1729-1756).
Swedish. Botanist and explorer. Studied
under Linnaeus. Went to Spain in 1751
and took part in the Spanish expedition
to Venezuela in 1754, where he died.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
observations, where everything was done with consent of the Spanish King [Carlos III de BorbónCarlos III de Borbón,
(1716-1788). Spanish. King of Spain.
Reigned from 1759-1788.
] and turned to his honor. The fact that Linnaeus has shown August GüntherGynther, August (?-?). Danish.
Pharmacist, Copenhagen. Owner of Paul
Hermann’s collections from Ceylon and
Malabar. Linnaeus used them for Flora
Zeylanica
(1747). After Gynther’s
death the collections were sold to
Joseph Banks. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
so much acknowledgment, Forsskål had submitted [in his letter from Marseille] as an evidence of Linnaeus’s way to respond to those contributing to the development of science. The kind of suspicion towards Linnaeus, that some people from Copenhagen has endeavored, is now disappeared. The King presupposes that such generosity will be mutual so that seeds and bulbs of rare plants will find their way to the University of Copenhagen Botanical GardenUniversity of Copenhagen Botanical
Garden,
Danish. The first
garden, Hortus Medicus was first
created in 1600 by a royal charter. A
second botanical garden was laid out by
Georg Christian Oeder in 1752, which was
opened to the public in 1763. In 1770 a
part of this garden was put at the
disposal of the University’s botanical
garden with Oeder as its first director.
It got its current location in 1870.
Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Copenhagen_Botanical_Garden
and to Georg Christian OederOeder, Georg Christian von
(1728-1791). German/Danish. Botanist
and economist. Studied under Albrecht
von Haller in Göttingen and became
professor of botany at Copenhagen.
Minister of finance for Norway. Started
the publishing of Flora Danica.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, who, according to Forsskål is the only one of the educated naturalists in Copenhagen, who have some form of solidity. Forsskål’s misgivings have thus been unjustified, and he feels relieved and in good spirits. Besides the garden in Copenhagen Forsskål will always care for the Uppsala University Botanical Garden [LinnéträdgårdenLinnéträdgården,
Swedish. The Uppsala University
Botanical Garden was founded by Olof
Rudbeck the Elder in 1655.
]. There is no is no place where plants are better cared for than there. He is enclosing seeds and a list of these [fol. 266] missing in Uppsala to be forwarded by Gustav CelsingCelsing, Gustaf (1723-1789).
Swedish. Envoy at the Sultan in
Constantinople. Chief of the National
Board of Trade [Kommerskollegium].
via Russian couriers to St. Petersburg, and from there with Swedish couriers to Stockholm. Transportation will cost nothing, as couriers travel often, and because they are familiar with the ministers, they can bring smaller packages with them. Forsskål believes they will arrive early. He will address them to Pehr WilhelmWargentinWargentin, Pehr Wilhelm
(1717-1783). Swedish. Astronomer and
statistician. Secretary of the Royal
Swedish Academy of Sciences since 1749.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, who is in Stockholm or to the academy of sciences there. He has chosen those that he has not seen in the Uppsala Botanical garden, and those of which he needs further information. Forsskål asks of Linnaeus to let him know if he has made right guesses. Letters to Forsskål should be addressed to the Danish Envoi in Constantinople [Sigismund Wilhelm von GählerGähler, Sigismund Wilhelm
(1706-1778). Danish. Nobleman. 1757
envoy extraordinair in Constantinople.
President of the Government in Altona
1767.
]. God willing, he will send seeds to Constantinople for Celsing to forward via Petersburg.

Forsskål is organizing natural specimens and packing them for transport home.

Most seeds have been left in their capsules.

Linnaeus should send his letters to Forsskål to the envoy of Denmark in Constantinople [von Gaehler]. Forsskål recently received Linnaeus’s letter of 30 June from him [this letter has not come down to us].

P. S. 1. On his arrival in Constantinople, Forsskål wrote to Linnaeus at the end of July, in a letter enclosed with a letter to his father [Johannes ForsskålForsskål, Johannes
(1691-1762). Swedish. Clergyman, vicar
in a Stockholm parish. Husband of
Margareta Forsskål, born
Colbeckia. Father of Peter
Forsskål, Johan Christian
Forsskåhl. and Jonas Gustaf
Forsskål.
].

P.S. 2. The name of the collector of conchylia in Copenhagen is Lorenz SpenglerSpengler, Lorenz (1720-1807).
Swiss. Swiss-born zoologist, who moved
to Copenhagen, Denmark in 1743.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, not Sprengler. Constantinople has, so far, been regarded as free from pestilence. Now there have been two cases in the street where Forsskål has his lodgings. People have a more relaxed attitude to it here and just avoid direct contact with sick people. Forsskål once went out into the countryside and then had to pass by a village where pestilence occurred.

P.S. 3 Forsskål has asked for permission to return home via the Cape of Good Hope but his request has not been answered yet. He sends his regards to Johan IhreIhre, Johan (1707-1780).
Swedish. Philologist. Professor of Latin
and later of eloquence and political
science at Uppsala.
and Samuel ZiervogelZiervogel, Samuel (1730-1793).
Swedish. Supervisor of Sätra Brunn.
. The next day Forsskål’s ship will set sail and take him to Alexandria.

P.S. 4. Forsskål tells Linnaeus that he has written a report in German to him about the new genera of molluscs. It will be forwarded by Adam Gottlob MoltkeMoltke, Adam Gottlob
(1710-1792). Danish. High court
official at Frederik V, statesman and
diplomat.
.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (LS, IV, 244, 266). [1] [2] [3] [4]

upEDITIONS

1. “Af Linnés brevvexling” (1871), p. 379   p.379.
2. Bref och skrifvelser (1912), vol. I:6, p. 146-148   p.146  p.147  p.148.

upTEXTUAL NOTES

a.
MS1 [added in the left margin f. 244v; there is no indication of where it should be inserted]
b.
MS1 [added in the left margin f. 244r; there is no indication of where it should be inserted]
c.
MS1 [added in the left margin f. 244r; there is no indication of where it should be inserted]