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C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L3033 • Carl Linnaeus to Daniel Solander, 1 January 1762 n.s.
Dated 1762 d 1 januarii. Sent from Uppsala (Sweden) to London (Great Britain). Written in Swedish.

Min Kiäreste Herre,

Gud wälsigne M[in] K[iäre] H[erre] med ett godt och wälsignat nyåhr.

förleden tisdag afsände jag med Mag[ister] Neander de 3000 d[a]l[e]r k[op]p[ar]m[yn]t, som uttoges för 2 åhr af Edert stipendio; att af Apelroth och Spalding afsändas på lika sätt som dett förra.

8 dagar för helgen war Eder swåger och Syster här i upsala; Eder Syster hade blefwit af Prof[essor] Acrell Gudi lof, fullkomligen restituerad till sitt bröst.

Huru går det i Engeland; huru kan M[in] K[iäre] H[er]re så länge berga sig i så dyr ort? lätt mig wetta huru snart wij få wänta M[in] K[iäre] Herre hem till oss; tiden lider och skyndar. jag skref senast om Ryska affairerne, hoppas brefwet framkommit, kunne jag winna att Ryska academien utnämt M[in] K[iäre] H[erre] till Professor, så hade jag wunnit mycket för min uträkning. jag hoppas M[in] K[iäre] H[erre] redan skrifwit swar.

Mitt förra äller sista gick under H[err] Collinsons couvert.

jag önskar intet högre än att H[err]ar Angli wille giöra fredd, ty rustningen med 4 ryttare kostar mig anseligt. men hwad hielpa våta?

H[err] Professor Solanders gifter måhl höres nu intet mera till. wår Canceller Hans Excellence v[on] Höpken har nu återtagit Cancellariatet, men icke ingått i Rådet.

Cancell[er] R. Ihre är Rector, och det blef intet af med Rector illustris Gref[we] Gyllenborg, som war ärnat.

Magist[er] Bergman är nu i stockholm att söka Adjuncturen äfter Melander, hwar till han står på förslaget. Appelblad och Floderus äro äfwen i stockholm, att söka Professionen äfter Amnell, hwar på de stå på förslag.

Det woro artigt om den Americanska Herr Kuhn; wij skulle täfla att giöra honom höflighet, och jag alla krafter att wisa honom tienst, så att han ej skulle ängra resan. H[err] Walletravers har intet att klaga; jag wiste ho[n]o[m] all uptänkelig höflighet, och han war hos oss rätt artig. Ryska Baronerne som han förde woro rätt artiga ungkarlar; de wille lefwa stort och hafwa många rätter, de bytte om på flere ställen, och wiste sig rätt nögda hos oss.

mycken tack för characteren af Amsonia. hon lärer wara et aparte genus. men hwad war det för en wäxt som H[err] Gordon sände under namn af Irisonia; intet kan det vara den samma.

Har M[in] K[iäre] H[erre] ännu ej kunnat få characteren af Moraea. H[err] Miller nämner 9 petala, som tyckes falla mig otroligt. Intet kan wähl den Iris, som Tilli uti Horto pisano afritat höra under detta genus. Det är swårt då man hwarken sedt ört, figur äller tydelig character.

Wij hafwa haft i horto i år en ört som kallats Belladonna hispanica humifusa; men aldrig kan hon wara spansk. ingen wet hennes patria. Flos är wähl convolvuli äller ock Atropae, men fructus är ex 5 seminibus nudis crusta succulenta tectis, sed separatis, ut in Asperifoliis om annars woro 4 frön, och ej 5, som det är.

Giör Eder underrättad hos H[err] Myller huru han håller sine bulbos capenses att de blomma, ty de begynna här om hösten att wäxa i orangeriet, wintren med mullna dagar påkomma, och altså sällan blomma.

Gardenia wäxer och mår wähl til Eder gloria.

Tänk om man kunde få Calycanthus huru stor fägnad skulle icke det wara. Halesia wäxer wähl; Det war skada at Hamamelis ej kom upp af frön. jag har aldrig sedt henne blomma.

Har M[in] K[iäre] H[erre] wähl fått se blomman Dorstenia tydeligen?

Kaempferia wet jag wäxer i Londons trägårdar, men hos oss utgången. om Frön kunna fås af Spigelia, så sänd mig för guds skull, och om det är mögligt få kiöpa af torra örten några lod, så laga att M[in] H[er]re har med sig hem.

Ett stånd af Polygala Senega woro guld wärt.

[a][a] : MS1 [added on fol. 4] Aldrig har upsala trägård fägnat mig med flere rara örter, än förleden sommar. Har M[in] K[iäre] H[erre] blefwit ledamot af Engelska Societeten? lätt mig wetta. det giör godt

[a][a] : MS1 [added on fol. 4] jag för[blifwer] Min K[iäre] Herres hörsamste tienare C[arl] L[innaeus]

[a][a] : MS1 [added on fol. 4] Upsala 1762 d[en] 1 januari

[a][a] : MS1 [added on fol. 4] jag fick en härlig hop med frön från H[err] Forskåhl i Constantinopel och äfwen en altför wacker bulbus.

[a][a] : MS1 [added on fol. 4] Har min K[iäre] H[erre] ej ännu fått se Gundelia i blomma, och om flosculi laterales på hwart receptaculo partiali äro hermaphroditer äller masculi? är det ej mögligt att få frön af Gundelia?

[a][a] : MS1 [added on fol. 4] alla de frön M[in] H[erre] sände i höstas har jag sått, men ej wågat drifwa för än wåren kommer. de utgjorde en thesaurum.

[b][b] : MS1 [added in the left margin
of fol. 1
]
Min hustru, Eder och Carl med H[err] Solander hälsa.

To
M[iste]r Dan[iel] Solander
by M[iste]r Brander & Spalding
London
frijbr[ef]

upSUMMARY

Linnaeus wishes Daniel SolanderSolander, Daniel (1733-1782).
Swedish. Naturalist, explorer. Student
in Uppsala under Linnaeus and Johan
Gottschalk Wallerius. Went to London in
1760. Curator of natural history
collections at the British Museum.
Botanist on Cook’s first voyage
1768-1771. Joseph Bank’s librarian.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
a happy New Year.

He has last Tuesday dispatched with Andreas NeanderNeander, Andreas (1714-1765).
Swedish. Clerk at the University of
Uppsala.
the Stipendium Piperianum of 3000 dlr kpmt for two years.

Solander’s brother-in-law [Daniel IdmanIdman, Daniel Swedish. Vicar
of Ijo in northern Finland. Husband of
Anna Magdalena Idman, born Solander.
Brother-in-law of Daniel Solander and
son-in-law of Magdalena Bostadia.
] and sister [Anna Magdalena IdmanIdman, Anna Magdalena
(1735-1807). Swedish. Wife of Daniel
Idman. Daughter of Magdalena Bostadia
and Carl Solander, sister of Daniel
Solander.
] had been in Uppsala; she had now completely recovered thanks to Olof af AcrelAcrel, Olof af (1717-1806).
Swedish. Surgeon, professor at the
Serafimer-hospital in Stockholm. Uncle
of Johan Gustaf Acrel.
.

Linnaeus wonders how Solander can support himself in such an expensive place and when he will be expected home, and also whether Solander has obtained his letter about the Russian affairs [Linnaeus to Solander, 11 December 1761Letter L3010]. He hopes that Solander already has replied to his letter.

Linnaeus’s last letter [11 December 1761Letter L3010] went under Peter Collinson’sCollinson, Peter (1694-1768).
British. Merchant and amateur naturalist
in London, corresponded with many
scientists. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
envelope.

Linnaeus hopes that the English will make peace; he has heavy costs for armaments.

Daniel Solander’s Solander, Daniel (1707-1786).
Swedish. Professor of Law, Uppsala.
Married to Anna Margareta Solander.
Brother of Carl Solander and uncle to
Daniel Solander. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
[Solander’s uncle] marriage is heard of no more. Anders Johan von HöpkenHöpken, Anders Johan von
(1712-1789). Swedish. Count and
statesman. One of the founders of the
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.The
Chancellor of the Uppsala University
1760-1764. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
has resumed his chancellorship [von Höpken was the Chancellor of the Uppsala university 1760-1764], but has not joined the council.

Johan IhreIhre, Johan (1707-1780).
Swedish. Philologist. Professor of Latin
and later of eloquence and political
science at Uppsala.
is appointed Vice Chancellor and nothing became of Carl Johan Gyllenborg’sGyllenborg, Carl Johan
(1741-1811). Swedish. Count and lawyer,
president of the administrative court of
appeal. Linnaeus’s student in 1748.
appointment to “rector illustris”.

Torbern BergmanBergman, Torbern (1735-1784).
Swedish. Professor of chemistry,
metallurgy and pharmacy at Uppsala.
Linnaeus’s student. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
is in Stockholm to apply for the position as adjunct after Melander [Daniel MelanderhjelmMelanderhjelm, Daniel
(1726-1810). Swedish. Professor of
astronomy, Uppsala. Secretary of the
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
1796-1803.
] for which he stands on proposal. Apelblad [Jonas ApelbladApelblad, Jonas (1717-1786).
Swedish. Lecturer in oriental languages,
Uppsala.
] and Johan FloderusFloderus, Johan (1721-1789).
Swedish. Professor of Greek, Uppsala.
Close friend to Carl Linnaeus and his
family.
are also in Stockholm to apply for the position after Johan AmnellAmnell, Johan Johannis
(1718-1789). Swedish. Professor of
greek 1747 and theology 1761, Uppsala.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
for which they stand on proposal.

Adam KuhnKuhn, Adam (1741-1817).
American. Physician, Philadelphia.
Studied under Linnaeus at Uppsala
University in 1762-1763. Linnaeus’s only
American student. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
from America has been well received. Walletravers [Johann Rodolph de ValltraversValltravers, Johann Rodolph de
(1723-?). Swiss. Linnaeus’s student
1760-1761. Preceptor of the three
brothers Demidov. Thomas Pennant’s
intermediary with Charles De Geer.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
], has no reason to complain. The Russian barons [Alexandr Grigorevich DemidovDemidov, Alexandr Grigorevich
(1737-1803). Russian. Linnaeus´s
student. Brother of Pavel Grigorevich
Demidov and Petr Grigorevich Demidov.
Son of Georgij Akinfievich Demidov,
grandson of Akinfiy Nikitich Demidov.
, Pavel Grigorevich DemidovDemidov, Pavel Grigorevich
(1738-1821). Russian. Linnaeus´s
student. Brother of Alexandr Grigorevich
Demidov and Petr Grigorevich Demidov.
Son of Georgij Akinfievich Demidov and
grandson of Akinfiy Nikitich Demidov. He
created a natural history museum in
Moscow which was later given to the
University of Moscow. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
and Petr Grigorevich DemidovDemidov, Petr Grigorevich
(1740-1826). Russian. Linnaeus´s
student. Brother of Alexandr Grigorevich
Demidov and Pavel Grigorevich Demidov.
Son of Georgij Akinfievich Demidov and
grandson of Akinfiy Nikitich Demidov.
] had been rather gracious bachelors who wished to live splendidly.

Linnaeus thanks for the description of Amsonia, but he wonders what kind of plant, named Irisonia, that James GordonGordon, James (1708-1780).
British. Gardener to James Sherard at
Eltham and then to Lord Petre at
Thorndon. After that he founded a
nursery at Bow and run a seed shop in
London. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
sent.

He wonders whether Solander has not yet obtained the description of Moraea for which Philip MillerMiller, Philip (1691-1771).
British. Gardener of the Chelsea Physic
Garden. Corresponded with many
botanists. His rich herbarium was sold
to Joseph Banks. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
has mentioned nine petals which is unbelievable. The Iris that Michelangelo TilliTilli, Michelangelo
(1665-1740). Italian. Professor of
botany, supervisor of the botanical
garden, Pisa. Grandfather of Angelo
Attilio Tilli.
has drawn in his Catalogus plantarum horti PisaniTilli, Michelangelo Catalogus
plantarum horti Pisani
(Florence,
1723).
cannot belong to this genus.

In the garden is a herb called Belladonna hispanica humifusa which cannot be Spanish.

He asks Solander to learn from Myller [Philip Miller] how he makes his bulbs from the Cape [of Good Hope] to flower.

Here are mentioned a number of plants which have grown well in Uppsala, such as Gardenia and Halesia, it was a pity however, that Hamamelis did not come up from seeds, and others which Linnaeus desires, such as Calycanthus, Dorstenia, Kaempferia, which is no longer in stock in Uppsala. He wants Solander to send Linnaeus some seeds from Spigelia and if possible buy some amounts from dry herbs, and bring it with him when he returns home.

He would appreciate a stand of Polygala Senega.

P.S. 1.[ added in the margin] Linnaeus states that the Uppsala University Botanical Garden has never delighted him with so many rare herbs as last summer and asks whether Solander has become a member of the English Society [Linnaeus means the Royal Society, LondonRoyal Society, London,
British. The Royal Society was founded
in Oxford in 1645 and sanctioned as a
royal society in 1662.
].

P.S. 2. Linnaeus has obtained a lovely amount of seeds and a bulb from Peter ForsskålForsskål, Peter
(1732-1763). Swedish. Naturalist and
explorer. Linnaeus’s student, professor
in Denmark in 1759. Joined a Danish
expedition to Egypt and Arabia in 1761.
Died at Jerîm, Arabia.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
in Constantinople [presumably sent with the letter from Forsskåhl to Linnaeus, 4 September 1761Letter L2965].

P. S. 3. He asks whether Solander has seen Gundelia in flower. He wonders if it could be possible to have some seeds of this flower.

P. S. 4. [added in the margin], Linnaeus’s wife [Sara Elisabet MoraeaMoraea, Sara Elisabet
(1716-1806). Swedish. Linnaeus’s wife.
Daughter of Johan Moraeus and Elisabet
Hansdotter Moraea. Mother of Carl
Linnaeus the Younger and of Elisabeth
Christina, Louisa, Sara Christina and
Sophia Linnaea.
], “Yours” [Linnaeus means Elisabeth Christina LinnaeaBergencrantz, Elisabeth Christina
(1743-1782). Swedish. Daughter of
Carl Linnaeus and Sara Elisabet Linnaea.
Sister of Carl Linnaeus the Younger and
of Louisa, Sara Christina and Sophia
Linnaea. Married to Carl Fredrik
Bergencrantz.Mother of Sara Elisabeth
Martin.
] and Carl Linnaeus the YoungerLinnaeus the Younger, Carl
(1741-1783). Swedish. Botanist. Son of
Carl Linnaeus and Sara Elisabet Linnaea.
Brother of Elisabeth Christina, Louisa,
Sara Christina and Sophia Linnaea.
Attended his father’s lectures, had
private tutors (Löfling, Rolander,
Solander and Falk, all Linnaeus’s
students). Demonstrator of botany at
Uppsala. Succeeded his
father.
with Daniel SolanderSolander, Daniel (1707-1786).
Swedish. Professor of Law, Uppsala.
Married to Anna Margareta Solander.
Brother of Carl Solander and uncle to
Daniel Solander. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
send their greetings.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (BL, Additional Ms 32439, 2-3v). [1] [2] [3] [4]

upEDITIONS

1. “Daniel Solander och Linné” (1954), p. 59-60 .
2. Collected correspondence (1995), p. 202-208 .

upTEXTUAL NOTES

a.
MS1 [added on fol. 4]
b.
MS1 [added in the left margin of fol. 1]