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Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L3181 • Nicolaas Laurens Burman to Carl Linnaeus, 4 December 1762 n.s.
Dated 4 Decembris 1762. Sent from Amsterdam (Netherlands) to Uppsala (Sweden). Written in Latin.

Nobilissimo & Clarissimo Viro,
C[arolo] Linnaeo Archiatro,
S[alutem] Pl[urimam] D[icit]
N[icolaus] L[aurentius] Burmannus.

Amicissimas mihique gratissimas litteras justo tempore recepi, ad quas mox responsum dedissem, si non nova illa Amaryllidis species, cujus florem tantum ultima vice in litteris dare potueram, scapum suum extulisset, quem hisce addere lubenter volueram, nuperque modo flores suos evolvisset, quae cum descriptione Am[maryllidis] reginae proxime accedit, tamen quoad nostram sententiam numquam ad datam a Millero figuram referri poterit, nec quoque penitus cum illa Hermanni convenire videtur cum qua tamen quoad crescendi modum melius quadrat, nisi quod illa ex America, haec ex Africa naturali modo scapum intra folia 6 vel 8 emittat, corollaque instructa sit absque tubo petalis linearibus reflexis undulatis, ut ex misso hocce perfecto specimine clarius apparebit, cui tamen tantummodo tres flores excreti fuere, cum in praecedente Septem aderant magnitudine paulo majores, colorisque intensiores.

Altera, quam mitto, est Ixiae illius species, cujus florem tantum litteris nuper incluseram, corolla virescente (instar vitrioli viridis) basi caerulea maculata, de qua in ultimis quaerebam, num pro varietate albae habenda. Hanc ex praedio afferre oblitus fui, ideoque addere nequeo.

Tertia (uniflora) colore e purpureo caerulescente nuper ex bulbis hac aestate receptis enata fuit scapo declinato unifloro, petalis duobus superioribus ad medium inflexis, genitalia occludentibus. Saltem in tribus speciminibus, quae modo habuimus, constanti lege adesse apparuit; si vero non per frigus autumnale peractum fuerit, quod iis diebus, quibus florebat, glaciale fuit.

Gratissimum praestares, si per litteras me docere velles, qui proprie in Ixiis animadvertendus character, ut ad Ixias referantur flores, nuper quum D[omi]nus de Gorter hic adfuerit; inter alia et quoque de hocce genere sermo fuit, credidimusque facile ab aliis separari posse, omnesque quorum corolla 6-fida, stigm. 3 simplicia huic generi adjungebamus, sed absoluta examinatione ultra quinquaginta fuerunt, quibus hicce character conveniret, quas tamen, si tu videres, non crederem Ixias vocandas esse, licet nulli generi propius accederent.

Nec Halleri nec Arduini nec Gerardi opera ullibi hic emenda prostant, quas lubens alias offerrem, nec bibliopolis nostris videntur nota; ab Ipsis auctoribus Carissimo meo Parenti oblata fuere, videnturque sumtibus auctorum impressa, hacque de caussa non adeo venalia.

Quum vero bibliopola quidam Leidensis Haek dictus hocce tempore Parisiis versetur et circa vernale tempus rediturus sit, absque dubio secum afferet.

Quomodo Tibi arridet Oederi flora Danica? Regis jussu parenti meo oblata, qui rex, scientiarum admodum amator, quasdam Plantas pro ejus horto Botanico a Parente meo petiit, quibus instruendus foret ejus hortus, quasque praecedenti anno procuravimus.

Licet male exsiccata sit Zinnia coloremque amiserit, tamen, uti habeo, mitto. Ante vernale tempus D[omi]ni Admiralii liber transmitti nequit, dataque occasione rogabo D[omi]n[u]m Balguerie, num audeat hac in re D[omi]no Mommae molestus esse, sique permiserit, mittam.

Nil gratius esse poterit, quam cum Tabellario Dissert[ationem] Tuam de fundamento fructificationis recipere, quam avidissime expeto, singulaque vice, qua philosophiam Tuam evolvo, hujus libri novam editionem exopto, quo omnia magis explicata habebuntur, cum, si verum fatear, plura supersint, quas ob brevitatem non bene percipi a me queunt; mittas itaque, si velis, data occasione dissertationem, eritque mihi gratissimum et acceptissimum Donum.

Hydrangeae semen, uti habeo, mitto; si vero vivum stolonem exoptares, ad Te mittere possemus.

Gloriosa nunquam profert semina; inter rariora floret; bulbum autem, si exoptas, addere possemus.

Clethrae semina nunquam magis matura ac hic mitto; bis sevi, sed nulla enata stirps; si et hanc desideres, vivam subministrabo.

Si rescribas, dicas, quaeso, quam per illam utriculatam intelligas plantam, num Bandura Zingalensium vel Nepenthes, quam a Parente meo expetebas, sed Ipsi sub eo nomine non cognitam, certusque sis, quod, si habeamus, proxima occasione et quoque recipies.

Doleo, quod servum Tuum Laurentium non adjuvare potuissem, quod libenter Tui caussa fecissem.

Valeas, Vir Clariss[ime], omnesque Domi Tuae amoris mei certiores facias, uti salutare Te petit Carissimus meus Parens.

Dabam Amstelaedami 4 Decembris 1762.

P. S. Zinnia recepta ex America (Jamaica credo).

Arundinis semen addo, qui novus nec Parenti ullibi figuris cognitus. Si bene memini, inter semina fuere a D[omi]no Forsskål Constantinopoli collecta, praecedenti anno in praedio sata, ex quibus tamen paucae plantae provenere, inter quas haecce panicula stricta ovata nutante.

Culmus ultra altitudinem hominis, folia, ut in arundine vulgari, pedunculus axillaris (ex articulo 7mo e radice) solitarius (in quaque planta) arcuatim flexuosus teres, crassitie pennae Cygninae, panicula coarctata ovata (magnitudine ovi) nutante. Inter illa semina quoque reperimus novum citrullum, capite humano duplo majorem fructum proferentem cortice albicante; hujus semina in posterum dabo; si exoptas, quae adhucdum in praedio sunt, debet vero in loco separato seri, cum unica planta sibi relicta ad minimum centum pedes occuparet.

An quoque semina a D[omi]no Forskål e Cairo ad Te missa fuere, si non receperis et scirem, quod Tibi arriderent, eorum partem, quorum mihi paullo major copia supersit, licet et pars pro horto nostro, et horto Regis Danici separanda sit, primo vere mitterem; sunt rarissima pluraque incognita.

Haec omnia idcirco offero, ut posses sequenti anno in horto tuo Upsaliensi, cujus novam editionem parare (ut ex filio audivi) in animo habes, inserere et figuris addere posses.

[address]
a Monsieur
Monsieur Carl[olus] Linnaeus
Professeur tres celebre &c. &c.
a
Upsal.

upSUMMARY

Nicolaas Laurens BurmanBurman, Nicolaas Laurens
(1734-1793). Dutch. Professor of
botany. Linnaeusís pupil in Uppsala in
1760. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
would have answered Linnaeusís last letter [Linnaeus to Burman, 6 November 1762Letter L3165] at once if his new Amaryllis had not brought forth its scape which he encloses in this letter. In his previous letter [Burman to Linnaeus, 23 October 1762Letter L3139] he could only send its flower. It is similar to the description of Amaryllis regina but not to John MillerísMiller, John (1715-1780).
German. Painter and engraver. Moved to
London in 1744. Published Illustratio
systematis sexualis Linnaei
(1777).
and not to Paul HermannísHermann, Paul (1646-1695).
German. Botanist, physician at Batavia,
professor of botany at Leiden.
illustration.

Burman also sends the Ixia species of which he sent a flower earlier. He had asked if it was a variety of Ixia alba.

The third specimen grew out recently from the bulbs Burman received this summer. It stopped flowering due to the autumn cold.

Burman would be very grateful if Linnaeus could teach him what is particularly characteristic of an Ixia. Burman has discussed it with David de GorterGorter, David de (1707 or
1717-1783). Dutch. Botanist and
physician. Succeeded his father Johannes
de Gorter as physician-in-ordinary to
the Empress Elizabeth of Russia. Son of
Susanna de Gorter, brother of Herman
Boerhaave de Gorter. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
who recently visited him.

Neither Albrecht von HallerísHaller, Albrecht von
(1708-1777). Swiss. Naturalist and
poet, professor of medicine, botany,
anatomy and surgery at Göttingen
1736-1753. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
,nor Pietro ArduinoísArduino, Pietro (1728-1805).
Italian. Professor of economy, Padua.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, nor Louis GerardísGérard, Louis
(1733-1819). French. Botanist,
Cotignac, Provence. Correspondent of
Linnaeus.
books can be bought anywhere in Holland [Burman refers to Hallerís ĒOrchidum classis constitutaĒHaller, Albrecht von ďOrchidum
classis constitutaĒ, Acta helvetica,
physico-mathematico-botanico-medica

4 (Basle, 1760), 82-166.
and Ad enumerationem stirpium helveticarum emendationes et auctariaHaller, Albrecht von Ad
enumerationem stirpium helveticarum
emendationes et auctaria
, I,
([Bern] [1759]).
, Arduinoís Animadversionum botanicarum specimenArduino, Pietro
Animadversionum botanicarum
specimen
(Padua, 1759).
and Gerardís Flora Gallo-ProvincialisGérard, Louis Flora
gallo-provincialis, cum iconibus
aeneis
(Paris 1761).
]. The authors themselves had given copies to Burmanís father [Johannes BurmanBurman, Johannes (1707-1779).
Dutch. Botanist, professor of medicine
in Amsterdam. Close friend of Linnaeus.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
]. The books were probably printed at the authors own expense. A Leiden bookseller, however, said that Haek [Theodoor HaakHaak, Theodoor (?-1768).
Dutch. Bookseller, Leiden.
], who now is staying in Paris, could probably bring them when he returns this spring.

Burman asks how much Georg Christian von OederísOeder, Georg Christian von
(1728-1791). German/Danish. Botanist
and economist. Studied under Albrecht
von Haller in Göttingen and became
professor of botany at Copenhagen.
Minister of finance for Norway. Started
the publishing of Flora Danica.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
[Flora danica]. Icones plantarum sponte nascentium in regnis Daniae et NorvegiaeOeder, Georg Christian von
[Flora danica.] [Flora danica].
Icones plantarum sponte nascentium in
regnis Daniae et Norvegiae, in ducatibus
Slesvici et Holsatiae, et in comitatibus
Oldenburgi et Delmenhorstiae: ad
illustrandum opus de iisdem plantis,
regio jussu exarandum, Florae danicae
nomine inscriptum
, 17 vol., Suppl.
(1 v.) (Copenhagen 1766 [i.e.
1761]-1883).
pleases Linnaeus. The book was given to Burmanís father on the orders of the Danish king [Christian VII, King of DenmarkChristian VII, King of Denmark
(1749-1808). Danish. Reigned 1766-1808.
]. The King has asked Burmanís father for some plants for his garden.

Burman sends a Zinnia, though it is badly dried and has lost its colour. He will ask Daniel BalguerieBalguerie, Daniel (1733-1788).
Swedish. Swedish agent in Amsterdam,
succeeded his father Pierre Balguerie.
to bring Jacob LíAdmiralísL´Admiral, Jacob
(1700-1770). Dutch. Engraver and
illustrator of plants and insects.
book [Naauwkeurige WaarneemingenL´Admiral, Jacob
Naauwkeurige Waarneemingen van Veele
Gestaltverwisselende Gekorvene
Diertjer
(Amsterdam, [1740]).
] to Peter MommaMomma, Peter Swedish. Printer
and publisher, Stockholm.
.

Nothing could be more pleasing to Burman than to receive Linnaeusís Fundamentum fructificationisLinnaeus, Carl Fundamentum
fructificationis
, diss. resp. J. M.
Gråberg (Uppsala, 1762)- Soulsby
no. 2214.
. He also thinks that Linnaeus should publish a new edition of his Philosophia [Burman refers to Philosophia botanicaLinnaeus, Carl Philosophia
botanica, in qua explicantur fundamenta
botanica cum definitionibus partium,
etc.
(Stockholm 1751). Soulsby no.
437.
].

Burman sends seeds of Hydrangea. If Linnaeus wants a live stolon, Burman can send that, too.

Gloriosa never produces seeds, but Burman can send a bulb.

Burman sends very mature Clethra seeds. He can also send a live plant.

Burman asks Linnaeus what he meant by the utriculata plant. Is it a Bandura Zingalensium or Nepenthes?

Burman deeply regrets that he could not help Linnaeusís friend Lars BrobergBroberg, Lars Swedish.
Gardener at the Uppsala University
Botanical Garden.
.

Burmanís father sends his best regards.

P.S. 1. Burman writes that he has received the Zinnia from America (possibly Jamaica) and that he adds a seed of Arundo that is new. His father does not know any illustration of it but Burman thinks it was among the seeds collected by Peter ForsskålForsskål, Peter
(1732-1763). Swedish. Naturalist and
explorer. Linnaeusís student, professor
in Denmark in 1759. Joined a Danish
expedition to Egypt and Arabia in 1761.
Died at Jerîm, Arabia.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
in Constantinople. The culm is taller than a man with leaves like Arundo vulgaris. Among the seeds Burman also found a new Citrullus with a fruit twice as big as a human head. He will send seeds of it in the future. They should be sown in a separate place since one plant occupies not less than a hundred feet.

P. S. 2. Burman asks if Linnaeus has received the seeds sent by Forsskål from Cairo. If not, and if it pleases Linnaeus to have them, Burman can send those of which he has a large supply. He offers them so that Linnaeus can add the plants in his Hortus UpsaliensisLinnaeus, Carl Hortus
Upsaliensis, exhibens plantas exoticas,
Horto Upsaliensis academiae a sese
illatas, ab anno 1742, in annum 1748,
additis differentiis, synonymis,
habitationibus, hospitiis, rariorumque
descriptionibus, in gratiam studiose
juventutis
, I (Stockholm 1748).
Soulsby no. 424
. Burman has learned from Linnaeusís son [Carl Linnaeus the YoungerLinnaeus the Younger, Carl
(1741-1783). Swedish. Botanist. Son of
Carl Linnaeus and Sara Elisabet Linnaea.
Brother of Elisabeth Christina, Louisa,
Sara Christina and Sophia Linnaea.
Attended his fatherís lectures, had
private tutors (Löfling, Rolander,
Solander and Falk, all Linnaeusís
students). Demonstrator of botany at
Uppsala. Succeeded his
father.
] that Linnaeus has in mind to publish a new edition [there was no new edition].

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. (LS, II, 513-514). [1] [2] [3]

upEDITIONS

1. Epistolae ineditae Caroli Linnaei (1830), p. 72-74 .
2. Bref och skrifvelser (1943), vol. II:2, p. 235-237   p.235  p.236  p.237.