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C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L3420 • Carl Linnaeus to Johannes Burman, 27 July 1764 n.s.
Dated 1764 d. 27 julii. Sent from Hammarby (Sweden) to Amsterdam (Netherlands). Written in Latin.

Viro Amplissimo,
D[omino] D[octori] JO[HANNI] BURMANNO et Filio,
S[alutem] pl[urimam] d[icit]
Car[olus] a Linné.

Accepi cistam cum plantis rarissimis, quas studiose pervolvo.

Africanae perplacuere; pleraque exemplaria erant pulcherrima; ad singula respondebo. Donum horum erat generosissimum, pro quo nequeo satis grates reddere.

Indiae plantae perplurimae erant mutilatae, fructificationibus destitutae, quas ne Oedipus determinet. Ubi fructificationes adsunt eas vel describam vel determinabo, et quam primum remittam. Sed vereor, quod in his non satisfecero, ubi ipsa impossibilitas vetat.

In Capensibus inprimis perplacuit fructificatio Petasitidis bliti fructu, quae novum genus conficit, et distinctum ab omnibus notis generibus.

CAL. Amentum squamulis linearibus unifloris. Perianthium nullum.
COR. nulla.
STAM. Filamenta nulla. Antherae duae, ovales, oppositae germini insidentes
PIST. Germen ovatum, acutum, apice bifido. styli 2, reflexi, filiformes.
Stigmata simplicia. PER. nullum.
SEM. ovatum, induratum, cortice tectum.

De Capensibus singulis respondebo; erant enim eae perfectissimae. Si rite intellexi quae adscripsisti Capensibus, dedisti mihi eas, modo responderem ad numeros. Si non recte intellexi scripturam, me doceas alia et remittam singulas; dum remitto Indicas, quas jam jam absolvi, quatenus absolvi possunt. Doleo, quod inter Indicas tam multa sint nova genera, quorum character perfectas dari nequit ob imperfecta specimina. Interim 12 genera distincta et nova extricavi.

Respondebo similiter ad Gerania Tua.

Nobis floret Brassica spinosa, quae est omnino species valde singularis Bunias.

Laetor, quod inter Tuas Indicas reperire poteram perfectum specimen Coldeniae; habet certe quatuor pistilla, quidquid reclament alii; sed habet hoc singulare, quod ejus duo semina sunt singula bilocularia.

Gladiolus tuus petalis undulatis est profecto speciosissima planta; ex specimine non rite perspicio, utrum sola tria exteriora petala sint undulata, vel omnia sex.

Floret nunc apud me Moraea Milleri, sed unicum habeo specimen.

Literas inclusas, quaeso, mittas ad D[ominum] Kleynhoff, qui praecedenti anno ad me aliquot semina misit.

An acceperis a filio meo pecunias pro insectis D[omini] LíAmmiral; quas dudum ipsi tradidi.

Vidi Adanssonii methodum naturalem, nec stultiorem umquam. Ille lacerat genera naturalia; Mesembryanthema, quae quivis tyro agnoscet ejusdem generis, in tria distinguit et sic in ceteris; certe nulla ejus classis valet. Dat notas copiosas, sed tamen nulla distinguit, adeoque nullus character; ideoque et haec nil nisi fragmenta nec systema. Mutat omnia nomina in pejus; miror, num iste sit sanus et sobrius. Certe nulla methodus et minus naturalis.

Hisce valete, Viri optimi, ingenui, amicissimi!

Dabam Hamarby 1764 d[ie] 27 julii.

Viro amplissimo
D[omino] D[octori] Johan[ni] Burmanno
Professori Botanico
Amsterdam.

upSUMMARY

Linnaeus has received a box with very rare plants from Johannes BurmanBurman, Johannes (1707-1779).
Dutch. Botanist, professor of medicine
in Amsterdam. Close friend of Linnaeus.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
that he has studied eagerly. The African plants please him very much. Most species are very beautiful and he will comment upon each of them. This is a very generous gift and he does not know how to thank Burman.

Most of the Indian plants are damaged, without fructifications, and not even an Oedipus can solve the riddles. Those having a fructificaton he will describe and classify and return as soon as possible.

Among the Cape plants, the fructification of Petasites, a new genus, pleases him most.

Linnaeus will answer to each one of the very perfect Cape plants. If he cannot understand something that Burman has written, he will send it back together with the Indian plants, and Burman can tell him what he meant. Linnaeus regrets that there are many new genera among the Indian plants and he cannot describe them since they are not perfect. He has found twelve new genera.

Linnaeus will also reply to the different species of Geranium.

Brassica spinosa flowers.

It pleases Linnaeus to find a perfect species of Coldenia among the Indian plants.

Burmanís Gladiolus petalis undulatis is really a very splendid plant.

Morea Milleri flowers but Linnaeus has only one specimen.

Linnaeus asks Burman to forward the enclosed letter [this letter has not come down to us] to Christian KleynhoffKleynhoff, Christian (?-?).
Dutch?. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
who sent him some seeds last year [Kleynhoff to Linnaeus, 19 October 1763Letter L3311].

Linnaeus wonders if his son [Carl Linnaeus the YoungerLinnaeus the Younger, Carl
(1741-1783). Swedish. Botanist. Son of
Carl Linnaeus and Sara Elisabet Linnaea.
Brother of Elisabeth Christina, Louisa,
Sara Christina and Sophia Linnaea.
Attended his fatherís lectures, had
private tutors (Löfling, Rolander,
Solander and Falk, all Linnaeusís
students). Demonstrator of botany at
Uppsala. Succeeded his
father.
] has sent money to Burman for Jacob LíAdmiralísL´Admiral, Jacob
(1700-1770). Dutch. Engraver and
illustrator of plants and insects.
insects [Linnaeus refers to the Naauwkeurige WaarneemingenL´Admiral, Jacob
Naauwkeurige Waarneemingen van Veele
Gestaltverwisselende Gekorvene
Diertjer
(Amsterdam, [1740]).
]. Linnaeus gave it to him a long time ago.

Linnaeus has never seen something more stupid than Michel AdansonísAdanson, Michel (1727-1806).
French. Botanist. Travelled in Senegal.
An opponent of Linnaeus. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
method [Linnaeus refers to the method brought forward by Adanson in Famille des plantesAdanson, Michel Familles des
plantes
, 2 vol. (Paris, 1763).
]. Even a tiro could see that Mesembryanthemum is one genus, but Adanson distinguishes three, and so on. This is not a system but only fragments. He has changed every name for the worse. Linnaeus wonders if the man is sane and sober.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (KVA, Carl von Linnťs arkiv, 2001-2004). [1] [2] [3] [4]

upEDITIONS

1. Epistolae ineditae Caroli Linnaei (1830), p. 77-79 .
2. Bref och skrifvelser (1943), vol. II:2, p. 170-172   p.170  p.171  p.172.