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Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L3562 • Giovanni Antonio Scopoli to Carl Linnaeus, 7 March 1765 n.s.
Dated 7. Martij. 1765. Sent from Idrija (Slovenia) to Uppsala (Sweden). Written in Latin.

Ill[ustrissimo] et Celeberrimo Viro,
D[omino] D[octori] Carolo v[on] LINNÉ,
Equiti de stella Polari,
Scientiae Naturalis Restauratori
&c. &c.,
S[alutem] P[lurimam] D[icit]
Joann[es] Scopoli Professor.

Doleo sumptus a TE factos pro mea Entomol[ogia], quos non meretur et quam una cum figuris ad TE mittere volebam. Viennensis Typografus monuit intra quatuor menses eas in lucem prodituras, nec adesse sculptores tam subtilibus rebus bene exprimendis aptos. Quamprimum prodiierint, ad Te vel Filium TUUM mittam. Ab edito hoc Opusculo multa nova vidi, quae in supplementis forte evulgabo. Inter haec Pediculi non pauci et nova species Hyppoboscae, cuius iconem mitto. Inveni hoc animal in Strige Bub[one] (a) statura naturalis, (b) palpus, (c) rostrum, (d) abdomen, (e) unguis, (f) pes. Didici etiam varias species Lepturarum, Icheumonum &c. solo sexu differre, nec non Poduram meam Aquaticam esse larvam Dystici, a Roeselio depictam. Ego amo Veritatem, nec me pudet errores ingenue fateri. Papilionem Hypermnestram, quod Ego ad Te misi, vocasti, ni fallor, Hermione. Schaefferus, ut audio, iam incepit evulgare, favore Regis Daniae, icones Insectorum Ratisbonensium, quorum aliquas ad me misit, ut determinarem. Gronovius etiam hac desuper, quid novi, molitur.

Dum essem Viennae, descripsi Aves Musaei Torriani et rariores Vivarii Caesarei, quas, una cum Carniolicis, luci destino. Inter has novae mihi videntur Coracias Carthageniensis, Branta torrida (Brantae et Plotti Geea Kleiniana retineo), Columba mugiens, Columba Tetroides, Loxia torrida, Emberiza luctuosa, Fringilla Mariposa. Inter nostrates est Certhia muraria, Loxia Serinus, Emberiza barbata, Sturnus collaris, Motacilla Boarula aliaeque.

Nova Flora mea sexuali ordine concinata nondum vidit lucem nec tam cito videbit, mala fide Krausii Bibliopolae Viennensis. In ea sunt Plantae rariores ultra 100 a me delineatae.

Nunc favore Augustissimae demisi me in tenebras Aulae subterraneae, facem praeferentibus propriis experimentis. Ego, duce Bechero, Classes tres adgnosco, nempe Terras, Bitumina, Metalla seu Corpora simplicia, composita, decomposita. Genera non definio, cum limites non videam et artificiales notae aut paucissima aut nimis multa demonstrent. Idem est de Speciebus, quae nihil sunt nisi varietates et absque erroribus determinari non possunt, si iudicium, ut oportet, ab igne Chemico petendum est, non vero ab externa facie, hic fallacissima. Sed concedas, quaeso, Celeberr[ime] VIR, ut Tibi ingenue dicam; marmor fixum 9-11, a solubilibus removendum; Spatum omne calcarium ab igne in calcem converti; Schistum tabularem fluere in igne in scoriam nigram, una cum fratribus coloratis; Micam et Falcum inter se differe ut Mus Musc[ulo] a Mure Marmota; Amianthum et Asbestum non esse Genera distincta; Crystallos salinas a lapideis removendas; Arsenicum non esse Bitumen; Hydrargyri mineram unam esse, nempe H[ydrargyrum] sulphure mineralisatum; Vismutum a Cobalto removendum; Ferrum nudum desideravi; Ferri mineras tres esse, nempe immaturam, maturam et fatiscentem; Ferrum 4 – Tuum, melius ad Basaltem pertinere; Cuprum nudum et precipitatum esse unum et idem; Lapidem Lazuli non esse Mineram cupri, cum fluat in igne in vitrum album et colorem exuat; Plumbum nudum esse paradoxum; Granatos dodecaedras fluere in igne et continere ferri libras 5-7 in centenario, stanni vero vix vestigium; Concreta reduci posse ad ea Genera, quae metamorphosis in igne demonstrat; Producta lapidea intra corpora animalium a Fossilibus separanda; Terras plerasque a Lapidibus male removeri. Lapidum inevitabilis necessitas et infinita utilitas exigit a Nobis eos conatus, quibus partes eorum constitutivae innotescant, ut bonum Reipublicae inde promoveatur, hinc Monographi hic praestantiores. Vestigia Naturae hic occulta, vis immensa in dissolvendis, uniendis sublunaribus; Potestas summa Elementorum congregans, dispergens, figens, maturans, destruens, digerens, metamorphoses miras insensibiles a Chemicis diversissimo et infando artificio incessanter introducens, filum aryadnaeum resservat filiis filiorum. Tua tamen Merita summa, Magne Vir, adgnoscet grata Posteritas, nec ulla unquam dissipabit Invidia.

Semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt. Vale et ma Ama!

Dab[am] Idriae 7 Martii 1765.

upSUMMARY

Giovanni Antonio ScopoliScopoli, Giovanni Antonio
(1723-1788). Italian. Physician and
naturalist. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
regrets that Linnaeus has had to pay so much for the Entomologia CarniolicaScopoli, Giovanni Antonio
Entomologia Carniolica, exhibens
insecta Carniolae [... ] distributa
[...] methodo Linnaeana
(Vienna
1763).
. He had intended to send it free of charge, with the drawings, but these had been delayed for lack of engravers. They will come, and there will be a supplement to the work. Scopoli mentions some of the insects that will be included. Also Jacob Christian SchaefferSchaeffer, Jacob Christian
(1718-1790). German. Lutheran pastor
and superintendent, Regensburg.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, with the help of the Danish King, plans to publish a work on the Rotterdam insects, and Schaeffer has sent some drawings to Scopoli and asked for help with the determination [Scopoli refers presumably to the forthcoming work by Schaeffer, Icones insectorumSchaeffer, Jacob Christian
Icones Insectorum circa Ratisbonam
indigenorum, coloribus naturam
referentibus expressae
, 3 vols.
(Regensburg, 1766-1779)
]. Johan Frederik GronoviusGronovius, Johan Frederik
(1690-1762). Dutch. Naturalist, senator
of Leiden. Linnaeus’s benefactor and
friend. Published Flora Virginica
(1743, 1762) together with John Clayton.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
is thus still planning from above [Gronovius had died in July 1762].

Scopoli has made descriptions of some birds kept in the Museum Turriani in Vienna, both foreign ones and Austrian. He plans to publish them.

The new edition of Flora Carniolica [Scopoli refers to the Flora Carniolica, 2nd editionScopoli, Giovanni Antonio
Flora Carniolica exhibens plantas
Carnioliae indigenas et distributas in
classes, genera, species, varietatis,
ordine Linnaeano
(1760), I-II, 2nd
edition (Vienna 1771-1772).
] arranged after the sexual system, will not be published for a long time yet, due to difficulties with the bookseller KraussKrauss, Austrian.
Book-printer, publisher, Vienna.
in Vienna.

Supported by the Empress [Maria TeresiaMaria Teresia, (1717-1780).
Austrian. Reigned from 1740-1780.
], Scopoli has started to work with chemistry and mineralogy. He reports briefly on a number of observations made during experiments with various samples. However, his basic stand is somewhat pessimistic: It is the task of chemistry to find the minerals best useful to society, but nature is unpredictable and will for a long time not give the scientist a real thread to follow.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (LS, XIV, 16). [1] [2]