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Link: • Carl Linnaeus to Johan Otto Hagström, 9 February 1774 n.s.
Dated 1774 d. 9 februarii.. Sent from Uppsala (Sweden) to (). Written in Swedish.


Linnaeus writes to Johan Otto HagströmHagström, Johan Otto
(1716-1792). Swedish. Physician and
naturalist. Linnaeus’s student. Linnaeus
wrote the introduction to his Pan
(1768), on bee-pollinated
flowers. He was one of the tutors of
Carl Linnaeus the Younger. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
that Svar på samma fråga med en förbättrad Pan apumHagström, Johan Otto
Svar på samma fråga med
en förbättrad Pan apum

(Stockholm, 1773).
is a new solid, original work, but that it should have been written in Latin.

Linnaeus says that he has never seen anything written by Johann Gottlieb GleditschGleditsch, Johann Gottlieb
(1714-1786). German. Botanist and
sylviculturist in Berlin, disciple of
Anton Wilhelm Platz and Johann Ernst
Hebenstreit, supervisor of Caspar Bose’s
garden 1731-1735, professor at the
Collegium Medico-Chirurgicum in 1746.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
on Apum diaeta [Gleditsch published the Betrachtung über die Beschaffenheit des BienenstandesGleditsch, Johann Gottlieb
Betrachtung über die
Beschaffenheit des Bienenstandes in der
Mark Brandenburg. Nebst einem
Verzeichnisse von Gewachsen aus welchem
die Bienen ihren Stoff zum Honig und
Wachse einsammlen
(Riga &
Mittau, 1769).
]. Jean-Louis Leclerc, comte de BuffonBuffon, Jean-Louis Leclerc, comte de
(1707-1788). French.
is in French [Linnaeus refers to the Histoire naturelleBuffon, Jean-Louis Leclerc, comte de
Histoire naturelle
générale et
particulière avec la description
du cabinet du roi
, 44 vol. (Paris,
], without beautiful illustrations and with fairly lengthy descriptions, a lot of anatomy with skeletons, but without method. Buffon criticised everybody but forgot himself, the one who had made the most errors. He hates “method”. Linnaeus doesn’t know if anything more than the many volumes of quadrupeds have been published [“Les animaux quadrupeds” took up several volumes of the Histoire naturelle].

Pehr Gullander’sGullander, Pehr (1741-1816).
Swedish. Clergyman.
work [Svar på den af kongl. vetenskaps academien för andra gången framstälda fråga, om bi-skötselGullander, Pehr Svar på
den af kongl. vetenskaps academien
för andra gången
framstälda fråga, om
(Stockholm, 1773).
] is not known to Linnaeus.

Carl Peter ThunbergThunberg, Carl Peter
(1743-1828). Swedish. Botanist,
physician, explorer. Professor of
medicine and botany at Uppsala. Studied
medicine under Linnaeus in Uppsala,
medicine and surgery in Paris, natural
history under Johannes Burman in
Amsterdam. Travelled in South Africa in
1772-1775, in Japan 1775-1776, Java and
Ceylon in 1777-1778. Correspondent of
has travelled widely and has discovered more plants from the Cape of Good Hope than any other has done.

Anders SparrmanSparrman, Anders (1748-1820).
Swedish. Naturalist, physician and
traveller. Disciple of Linnaeus. In 1765
he went on a voyage to China and in 1772
to the Cape of Good Hope, where he
served as a tutor. Later the same year,
Sparrman went on James Cook´s
second voyage as assistant naturalist to
Johann Reinhold Forster and his son
Johan Georg Adam Forster. After his
return to Sweden in 1776 he was
appointed keeper of the natural
historical collections of the Royal
Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1780. In
1787 he participated in an expedition to
West Africa. Practicing physician in
Stockholm. Author of several works, the
best known of which is his account of
his travels in South Africa and with
Cook. Son of Brita and Eric Sparrman.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
discovered fairly many rare plants at the Cape of Good Hope before he sailed to the new southern world, where Solander was for a couple of years.

Andreas BerlinBerlin, Andreas (1746-1773).
Swedish. Botanist. Linnaeus’s student
1765-1766. Secretary of Joseph Banks
1770-1773. Died in Delos, Guinea.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, who is in Guinea, had sent Linnaeus marvellous rare plants.

Johan Gerhard KönigKönig, Johan Gerhard
(1728-1785). Danish. Physician, born in
Polish Livonia. Private pupil of
Linnaeus in 1757. Visited Iceland. Went
to Tranquebar in India, to Thailand and
Ceylon. He died on his way to Tibet.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, also one of Linnaeus’s former disciples, is working in botany in Malabar.

Thus, writes Linnaeus, he is pleased with his disciples.

When younger and more agile, Linnaeus had worked for the introduction of teachers in Natural History but now he was too old. At that time, Linnaeus also worked to obtain scholarships for travel to countries outside Europe, but no longer; foreigners must come here and help. The development in science is similar to that of Cynosurus coeruleus; when it withers everything in the neighbourhood starts withering as well. The Pope [Clemens XIIIClemens XIII, (1693-1769).
Italian. Pope from 1758-1769.
Predecessor of Clemens XIV.
] who condemned Linnaeus’s books to be burnt, had now [the successor of Clemens XIII, Clemens XIVClemens XIV, (1705-1774).
Italian. Pope from 1769-1774. Succeeded
Clemens XIII.
] ordered them to be publicly read in the University of Rome.

It would give Linnaeus great pleasure to see Hagström out at his farm [Hammarby] and his little museum, that possibly had some merit among the cottages in the parish of Danmark.

Linnaeus plans to publish a third edition of the Mantissa plantarum altera, 2nd ed. Linnaeus, Carl Mantissa
plantarum altera
(1766), 2nd ed.
(Stockholm 1771). Soulsby no. 312.
[there was no third edition], which now has 400-500 foreign plants and 300 new animals.

The second volume of the Systema vegetabiliumLinnaeus, Carl Systema
vegetabilium secundum classes, ordines,
genera, species, cum characteribus et
, ed. J. A. Murray
(Göttingen, 1774). Soulsby no. 573.
is now being printed in Göttingen, largely expanded.


a. contemporary copy (KVA, Bergius, XIX, 555).


1. Bref och skrifvelser (1912), vol. I:6, p. 292-294   p.292  p.293  p.294.