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C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L5145 • Carl Linnaeus to Johann Reinhold Forster, 1 September 1775 n.s.
Dated 1775. d. 1. septembris. Sent from Uppsala (Sweden) to London (Great Britain). Written in Latin.

Florae antarcticae Legato plenipotentiario,
D[omino] D[octori] JOAN[NI] REIN[HOLDO] FORSTERO,
S[alutem] pl[urimam] d[icit]
Carol[us] a Linné

Deo ter optimo, maximo, grates, quas mens humana reddere potest maximas, ago, qui me servavit inter vivos in reditum Tuum ex itinere longissimo periculosissimo, quod semper eflagitavi, et tandem obtinui, nec speraveram jam valde senex.

Litteras Tuas, Vir omnium amicissime, candidissime, die 4 calend[as] augusti Londino, adeoque post faustum reditum Tuum in patriam, hodie habui, nec umquam rariores. Gratulor charae Conjugi, natis et mihi ipsi. Deus ipse Te duxit uti suum per tot discrimina vitae.

Lego et Relego Tua itinera ex literis Tuis et miror, quomodo potuisti tot adire regiones, tot observare varia, tot haurire et superare dificultates [sic], tamdiu perferre maris varietates sexcentas alias duras vicissitudines.

Sed et simul gratulor Scientiae pulcherrimae auctam [sic] tam multis novis inventis tamque raris et remotis, quae latuere a condito orbe, quibus parasti tibi immortale nomen, sempiternam gloriam.

Accepi quae sub abitu misisti delicias, propria tua rarissimaque insecta eorumque descriptiones. Non vidi nec audivi similem generositatem ab ullo mortalium. Per hoc facinus Te primum didici meoque cordi inscripsi nomen tuum primo in loco. Accepi etiam Kalmi, Löflingii, &c., itinera. Accepi a pulcherrima virgine Anna Blackburne ejus delicias. Accepi nuper a D[omino] Gordon Rhamnum volubilem vivum. Accepi etiam a D[omino] Tunstal conchylia, inter quae omnia nota excepto Trocho Tunstallii vere nobili. Quid ego pro his omnibus?

Si quod imposterum quidquam e tuis Thesauris itineris mecum communicaveris, mea honore et fide spondeo, me nihil communicaturum, antequam Tua edideris; postea enim licet cuique de Tuis loqui.

Oro quod imponas Tuis nomina distincta generica, ne umquam discedere cogar a Tuis nominibus e.gr. Chrysomelum. Annon posset mutari etiamnum cum nimis simile Chrysomelae insecto? Annon velles modo nomina enumerare tuorum Generum, ne ulla fieret collisio? Habeo jam jam paratam Mantissam meam tertiam, in qua sequentia mihi genera Myrosma, Quantilla, Forstera (Act. Angl.) Gomosia, Rhetia, Ignatia, Pentstema Gyrospermum, Falkia, Cussonia, Sparrmannia, Berlinia, Meridiaria, Aponogeton, Tunbergia, Rupifraga, Pallasia; Dodecas, Vallea, Ternstroemia, Fothergillia, Bathrys, Levisona, Hediosma, Castillea, Drupina, Hemimeris, Symphonia, Syphilos, Gustavia, Mutisia, Unxia, Galaxia, Disa, Aegopicron, Montinia, Euclea, Margaritana, Fusanus, Pubeta, Hydrophylax.

An ullae plantae Europeae in novis Hebridibus? Quaenam ordines naturales ibi frequentes & quaenam omnino absentes?

Si edas nova Tua genera absque mora, dubium non erit, quia ita displicebit Banksio et Solandro, ac acceptum evadat toto reliquo orbi erudito. Omnes enim aegre tulerunt moram, dum isti promiserunt aureos montes, sed exspectando praestitere[a][a] : MS1 <promisere>
praestitere
ne quidquam.

Postquam descripsisti Tuas plantas, oro flexis genubus, serves pro me ex descriptis aliquod specimen pro meo herbario e novis Hebridibus, ut possim videre vel unicam plantam ex australi orbe, qui nullam umquam vidi, licet habeam plures species siccatarum, quam ullus in toto orbe, ut plane persuasum sum.

Tu a me petis quod curabo, ut Sparmannus creetur Doctor med[icinae]. Tu nihil a me petas, sed jubeas eum, qui tuus est et erit. Si sit in mea potestate, fiet. Tentabo omnibus viribus. Constitutiones Regiae sunt nostrae leges. A superis petam. Si negetur, non erit mea culpa; tentabo certe.

Gratulor quod Deus Te filiumque servavit a Tetrodontis venemo; ab eo periit coquus Hasselquistii.

Ex novellis publicis nobis narratum Brassicam acetosatam Banksii servasse milites; ante annum hoc[b][b] : MS1 [added over the line] audivimus; non vero de infuso Maltae.

Plantas siccatas et novas vere multas habui praecedenti anno e Cap[ite] b[onae] Spei et e nova Granada nec non e Surinamo et Tranquebaria.

Paro novam editionem tomi primi Systematis naturae; absolvi hanc excepta prima et secunda classe, quam nequeo praestare ante initium proximi anni.

Salutem plurimam impertiaris amicissimos meos Anglos, quorum habeo plurimos. Vive diu salvus et felix!

Dabam Upsal[iae] 1775 d[ie] 1 septembris.

To
Mr John Reinhold Forster
in Percy Street, near Oxford road
London

upSUMMARY

Linnaeus is happy to have lived to see Johann ReinholdForsterForster, Johann Reinhold
(1729-1798). German. Naturalist and
voyager. Visited St Petersburg, Moscow,
Saratov and Constantinople before he
went to England. In 1772 he took part in
Cook’s second voyage. Moved to Halle in
1780 to become director of the botanical
garden. Father of Johan Georg Adam
Forster. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
return from his voyage.

Linnaeus has received Forster’s letter dated London 29 July [1775] [Forster to Linnaeus, 29 July 1775Letter L5128]. Linnaeus reads and rereads it; he is amazed.

Linnaeus has received the things that Forster sent him upon his departure. Linnaeus has never experienced such generosity before. Linnaeus has also received Pehr Kalm’sKalm, Pehr (1716-1779).
Swedish. Botanist and traveller,
professor of natural history at
Åbo. Disciple of Linnaeus.
Travelled in North America 1748-1751.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
and Pehr Löfling’sLöfling, Pehr (1729-1756).
Swedish. Botanist and explorer. Studied
under Linnaeus. Went to Spain in 1751
and took part in the Spanish expedition
to Venezuela in 1754, where he died.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
travel books [ Linnaeus refers to as En resa til Norra AmericaKalm, Pehr En resa til Norra
America, på Kongl. Swenska
Wetenskaps Academiens befattning, och
publici kostnad
, I-III (Stockholm
1753-1761). Soulsby no. 2586a.
by Kalm and Iter Hispanicum, eller resa til spanska länderna uti Europa och AmericaLöfling, Pehr Iter
Hispanicum, eller resa til spanska
länderna uti Europa och America

(Stockholm 1758).
by Löfling] as well as things from Anna BlackburneBlackburne, Anna (1726-1793).
British. Naturalist and collector of
specimens. Daughter of John Blackburne
and sister of Ashton Blackburne.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
. James GordonGordon, James (1708-1780).
British. Gardener to James Sherard at
Eltham and then to Lord Petre at
Thorndon. After that he founded a
nursery at Bow and run a seed shop in
London. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
has sent Linnaeus a live Rhamnus volubilis. Linnaeus has received conchylia from Marmaduke TunstallTunstall, Marmaduke
(1743-1790). British. Ornithologist.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
, among which all were known except Tunstall’s Trochus.

If Linnaeus receives something from Forster in the future, he promises not to communicate anything before Forster has published his material.

Linnaeus asks Forster to impose distinct generic names to his plants. He also wants Forster to enumerate the names of his genera so that there will be no collision. Linnaeus has now prepared his third edition of Mantissa [Linnaeus refers to a new edition of his Mantissa plantarum altera, 2nd ed.Linnaeus, Carl Mantissa
plantarum altera
(1766), 2nd ed.
(Stockholm 1771). Soulsby no. 312.
; a third edition was never published]. Linnaeus enumerates the genera.

Linnaeus wonders whether there are any European plants in the New Hebrides. He wonders which natural orders are frequent and which are totally absent.

Linnaeus wants Forster to publish his new genera as soon as possible. Joseph BanksBanks, Joseph (1743-1820).
British. Naturalist, president of the
Royal Society. Together with Daniel
Solander he took part in Cook’s first
voyage. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
and Daniel SolanderSolander, Daniel (1733-1782).
Swedish. Naturalist, explorer. Student
in Uppsala under Linnaeus and Johan
Gottschalk Wallerius. Went to London in
1760. Curator of natural history
collections at the British Museum.
Botanist on Cook’s first voyage
1768-1771. Joseph Bank’s librarian.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
have achieved nothing through their delay.

Linnaeus entreats Forster to send him a plant from the New Hebrides so that he can at least see one single plant from the southern continent.

Linnaeus will do what he can to ensure that Anders SparrmanSparrman, Anders (1748-1820).
Swedish. Naturalist, physician and
traveller. Disciple of Linnaeus. In 1765
he went on a voyage to China and in 1772
to the Cape of Good Hope, where he
served as a tutor. Later the same year,
Sparrman went on James Cook´s
second voyage as assistant naturalist to
Johann Reinhold Forster and his son
Johan Georg Adam Forster. After his
return to Sweden in 1776 he was
appointed keeper of the natural
historical collections of the Royal
Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1780. In
1787 he participated in an expedition to
West Africa. Practicing physician in
Stockholm. Author of several works, the
best known of which is his account of
his travels in South Africa and with
Cook. Son of Brita and Eric Sparrman.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
is created doctor of medicine.

Linnaeus is grateful that God has preserved Forster and his son Johan Georg Adam ForsterForster, Johan Georg Adam
(1754-1794). German. Son of Johann
Reinhold Forster and followed him to the
expedition to the South Seas.
from the venom of Tetrodon. Fredrik Hasselquist’sHasselquist, Fredrik
(1722-1752). Swedish. Physician and
naturalist, explorer. Studied under
Linnaeus and Lars Roberg 1741-1749. Went
to Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Cyprus,
Rhodes and the island of Chios. Died
near Smyrna. Son of Magnus and Helena
Maria Hasselquist, brother of Andreas
Hasselquist. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
cook died of this venom.

Linnaeus has read that Banks’s Brassica acetosa has kept soldiers healthy but he has read nothing about the malt.

During the previous year Linnaeus received dried plants from the Cape of Good Hope, New Granada, Surinam and Tranquebar.

Linnaeus is preparing a new edition of the first volume of his Systema naturae.

Linnaeus sends his regards to his English friends.

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (Special Collections of the University of Amsterdam, Ms. 132 Ce 2). [1] [2]

upEDITIONS

1. Der Teutsche Merkur (1774), vol. 2, p. 267-268 .

upTEXTUAL NOTES

a.
MS1 <promisere> praestitere
b.
MS1 [added over the line]