Documentation

Letters

-Search for letters
-Search in texts

Manuscripts

Editions

Links

Contact

C18

Link: linnaeus.c18.net/Letter/L5251 • José Celestino Mútis to Carl Linnaeus, 8 February 1777 n.s.
Dated d. 8 Februarij 1777. Sent from Ibagué (Columbia) to Uppsala (Sweden). Written in Latin.

Viro Clarissimo, Amicissimo suo,
D[omi]n[o] D[omi]n[o]
Car[olo] Linné, Equiti] Aurato &c. &c.,
Sal[utem] P[lurimam] d[icit]
J[ohannes] C[elestinus] Mutis.

Collectionem istam plantarum, quam ad Te, V[ir] H[onoratissime], mittere curavi per D[omi]n[um] J[ohannem] Jacob[um] Ganh, non parvi ducas sperare me faciunt, quae de praecedenti collectione gratissimo animo jamdiu mihi significasti. Ruizius noster post longam trium annorum peregrinationem feliciter in Americam restitutus, multa de Te tuisque rebus, Clarissimoque Tuo filio non semel loquutus jucundissimos dies habere me fecit. Artem Docismasticam, quam in Celeferd didicit coram me optimo successu per duos integros menses tractavit, minerarum plurium naturam examinando. Tandem his diebus ab Urbe Bogotense simul recessimus et in has fodinas Ybagnenses pervenimus, ut Artis Metallurgicae processus omnes instituat Vir iste pererudite instructus atque profectus Hartzinae Superioris (dans le Haut-Hartzs). Ego autem pro humanissima Tua Benignitate, qua illum in amplexus Tuos concepisti, debitas gratias ago. Ruizius igitur et Escallonius nostrique omnes Te salutant, Filiumque Tuum Cl[arissimum] meo nomine salutatum vellem. Vale!

Dabam ex Fodinis Ybagnensis d[ie] 8 Februarii 177.

Circa Collectionem priorem

9. Callisiam dixisti; at pace Tua est certe Tradescantia, filamenta VI, villosa, &c.

14. Alchemilla aphanoides. Semper dubius haerebam, cuinam horum generum adscriberem plantam istam. Est planta vere digyna, staminibus III instructa. Semina duo. Alteram possideo facie Alchemillae. Est etiam digyna, sed stamina duo tantum habet; semina itidem duo.

13. Gaudeo tibi etiam vidisse pro genere novo habendam. Nomen imponas.

16. Rhexia Bogotensis in diariis meis. Non bene memini, cujusnam sit Tabula 6, an illius cujus flosculum includo; anno vero hujus cujus specimen mitto sub. n. 111. Antherae hujus versatiles sunt, et perianthio exteriore destituta est; illius antherae erectae, et perianthio exteriore bivalvi. De Rhexiis non paucae mihi ocurrunt difficultates. Omnes hactenus a me visas antheras habent perforatas, praeter speciem singularissimam, quam heic loci vidi, cujus stamina 2plia serie posita; interiora breviora sunt, antherae longitudinaliter per medium dehiscentes.

17. Tibi ignota ignoto fructu maturo. Plantae iconem includo n. 1.

20. Est procul dubio Datura Arborea. Icones 2.3.4.

21. Gratias debitas ago pro genere singularissimo meo nomini consecrato. Ab anno 1762 plantam istam jam novi, et descripsi.

22. Videtur esse Bassella

26.27. Viburnum procul dubio.

28. 29. Haec erat mea Logia. Hujus generis Icones tres.

30. 62. 63. An eadem cum ista sub n. 114 hujus col. contenta?

31. Spiraea argentea. Perperam a me pro Dalibarda suspicata.

34. Numerus feminarum varians ordinem determinare me vetuit.

36. Adhuc genus ignoro. An eadem cum ista sub no. 68 inclusa?

37. Olim mihi putata Erythalis. Fructificationis iconem includo tab. 13. fig. 1.

56. Non satis miror lincaeos oculos Tuos in determinando genere hujus, et detegendo flore Gomeziae chartula incluso sub. n. 15. Est certe viola, et pro tali ab anno 1761 a me semper habita.

57-58. Fructificatio eadem, quantum video, Hyperici novi n. 10 praeter stylorum numerum; hujus tres, illius quinque. Fateor me adhuc non cognovisse Hypericorum veros limites.

59. Perperam delusus praecipiti speciminum electione pro Polygala aestuante novi generis plantam missi. Si fuerint quam suspicor, ita est singularis, et prorsus singularissima propter partium floris inconstantiam. Sed de his in posterum. Iconem fructificationis includo tab. 13. fig. 2.

70. 71. 72. Andromedam dixisti. Plantam vivam quotidie video, ejusque characteres (praesertim perianthium in baccam conversum) Gaultheriam esse me credere cogunt.

88. Quadria mea. Hypericum laurinum; licet fructus sit bacca? De novo genere, fructu adhuc non viso suspicabatur olim Jacquinius. Plantam descripsi, et ex ea novum genus confeci, priusquam vidissem opus Jacquinii. Sed esto Hypericum.

89. Sub hoc no. video Caricam Papaya, et in meo Indice est Cinchona Bogotensis eadem cum Peruviana ab anno 1772 circa Urbem Bogotensem a me inventa. Iconem pulcherrimam delineare feci.

93. Hemesias Loeflingii, lignum sanguinis, inter nostrates quasi dicerent lignum ad sanguinis fluxum exhibendum aptissimum. Ita Hemesias a Loeflingio appellatum. Brownea Jacquinii. Gramina constanter undecim vel millies inveni. Hujus semen erat sub chartula n. 5 flosculi n. 19 Pericarpium est legumen.

110. Flores impatienter exspecto. In hoc itinere plantam istam frequentissimam inveni leguminibus onustam vel unico flore semper destitutam.

119. Silentio praetermissisti. Mihi Melastoma. Rursus eam mitto. Fructificationis iconem fig. 5a tab. 13 repraesentat.

122. Haec etiam praetermissa. Quid? Mihi Myrtoidea. Rursus eam mitto.

123. Interrogas. Mihi Scutellaria

126. Pentandra ignota. Est certe decandra. Vaccinioides? Vel novum genus.

138. 139. Melongena Plumierii. Solanum aut Capsicum nescis. Mihi Solanum.

140. Flosculum delineatum includo tab. 13. fig. 4.

143. Sibthorpiae species? sed distincta non vides. Haec invenio a Te dicta. Da igitur veniam, V[ir] H[onoratissime], quod rursus specimina mittam. Planta sub hoc no. missa mihi erat genus novum. Pentandra est, monopetala petalo rotato quinquepartito, digyna. Fructus biventricosus. Si ita fuerit rogo, quod Escalloniam dicas in honorem Viri Systematis Linnaeani perstudiosi, et in excursionibus meis Sodalis indefessi Tab. 13. fig. 6.

In altera Sibthorpia a te dicta (in iconibus meis nescio, cur praetermissa) exsiccata non bene detego caracterem. Data occasione rursus examini subjiciam plantulam vivam, quae inter Pentandras mihi destinata erat.

De iconibus 1ae col.

1. 2. 3. Logia mea ab anno 1767. Calceolariae Tuae adhuc nescio caracterem.

14. Planta valde singularis. Nequaquam Tradescantia. Est certe diandra Gynandra. Flos mentitus petalis 3bus exterioribus subaequalibus calycis vicem gerentibus, 3bus interioribus, quorum medium adscendens et latius est. Nectarium centrum floris occupat; villosissimum est &c.

19. Arbor Dioica est. Masculi flores perianthio, praeter squamulam, et corolla destituti. Stamina plura, filamenta vix ulla. Faeminei flores nec perianthio nec corolla gaudent, germina duo subcoalita; styli duo. Florem masculum delineatum exhibet tab. 13. fig. 3. Si fuerit novum Genus, uti suspicor, nomen imponas, idemque facias reliquis novis generibus anonimis, vellem, uti non semel tibi significavi. Nomina Botanicorum reliquis praefero.

Circa hanc Collectionem

2. Mimosa?

5. Hujus semen erat suo n. 6. chartula involutum.

6. An diversa ab altera sub n. 10 hujus est? Ita videtur. Semen erat suo n. 3. chartula involutum.

7. Hujus semen erat sub n. 7., folium et flores altera chartula sub n. 17.

8. Lobelia?

9. Cuscuta? An diversa ab altera specie sub ns. 73.74. 1ae col.

13. Tagetes?

23. Jeussiaea?

24. Rubus

36. Lobelia? Altera

38. Cleome?

43. Tradescantia. Diversa ab altera col. 1a sub n. 9.

45. Hujus semen erat sub. n. 9. chartula involutum. Ricinus?

46 Hujus semen erat sub. n. 8 chartula involutum.

49. Guayabita. Novi vulgatissima est. Predium meum undique hoc frutice scatet. A Loeflingio bene descripta, sed non memini. Dum haec scribo, libri mei nondum pervenerunt.

58. Continet florem pulcherrimum Aristolochiae, quem ab anno 1761 ad oras fluminis Magdalenae lectum servabam.

59. Fructus subsessiles. Mespilus?

60. Fructus pedunculati. Mespilus?

61. Davilia. Mihi genus novum, Octandra Monogyna, Capsula triloba, trilocularis, trivalvis, Semina 3.

62. Planta singularis

63. Solanum. 64. Begonia. An diversa sub icone n. 18?

65. Epidendrum? 66. Epilobium?

71. Lythrum? (Dipetalum) Constanter in omnibus per 16 annos frequentissime visis. At in hoc itinere eamdem speciem dipetalam vidi, sed rudimentis duorum instar petalorum instructam.

72. Lythrum? 73. Erat sub n. 126. Non est Pentandra sed decandra, germen inferum.

74. Physalis. 75. Eadem quae sub n. 37 1ae col. Erythalis quondam putata. 76. Epidendrum.

78. Affinis Rhexiae. Alteram Rhexiam singularissimam hic inveni. Altera ocasione data specimen hujus mittam.

79. Cassia. 80. Eadem quae sub n. 119 1ae col., de qua nihil dixisti. Mihi Melastoma.

81. Lobelia etiam Bogotensis distincta ab altera, quae sub nis. 83. 84. 85. 1ae col. 82. Castilleja. An species distincta? 83. Mirtoidea. Eadem quae sub n. 122, de qua nihil dixisti. 84. Copaifera.

86. Hujus descriptionem missi in litteris, in quibus Krameriam meam descripsisse memini. Hujus epistolae responsum ad manus meas non pervenit. 89. Pro Cinchona perperam habita ab Incolis Guayanae.

90. Folium magnum passiflorae. 91. An diversa a praecedenti?

93. Gualtheria vel ejus affinis. 94. Pentandra monogyna Bacca.

95. An diversa a pracedenti? 102. Phytolacca. 103. An Senecio, diversa ab altera sub n. 141 1ae col.? 104 Malva? 107. Lathyrus?

108. Hujus semen erat sub n. 16 chartula inclusum. 108. (b) Berberis.

109. Veronica. III. An species diversa Rhexiae? 112. Quonam sub no. in col. priore? An sub no. 136. 113. Eadem quae sub n. 143. Pentandra. Digyna. 114. Diversa a praecedenti, quae erat sub nis. 30. 62. 63. 115. Rhexia cum perianthio exteriore bivalvi.

116. Calceolaria perfoliata, quam petis.

117. Palavia Genus mihi novum.

118. Scutellaria? An eadem quae sub 123 col. prioris?

Singenesistas plures, quae maximam mihi producunt difficultatem hac occasione mitto. De his et reliquis omnibus pro Humanitate Tua sententiam aperias. Filicem missi: Alteram rostro subarcuato ad ardeas reduxi, forsan non bene. Intra paucos menses collectionem amplissimam ad Te transferri curabo. Vale!

upSUMMARY

Since Linnaeus was pleased with the things he received earlier, José Celestino MútisMútis, José Celestino
(1732-1808). Spanish. Botanist.
Went to South America in 1760 and lived
in Bogotá, which due to him
became an important centre of learning.
His comprehensive herbarium, manuscripts
and numerous watercolour botanical
illustrations were sent to Spain after
his death. Correspondent of Linnaeus.
is confident that Linnaeus will also enjoy what he now has sent through Hans Jacob GahnGahn The Younger, Hans Jacob
(1748-1800). Swedish. Office of the
Council, and the Consul General in
Cadiz. Son of Hans Jacob Gahn and
brother of Henrik Gahn.
. After a long journey of three years, Clemente Ruiz PabónPabón, Clemente Ruiz
Spanish. Disciple of José
Celestino Mútis.
has returned to America. Mútis spent many days listening to what Ruiz Pabón told him about Linnaeus and his son [Carl Linnaeus the YoungerLinnaeus the Younger, Carl
(1741-1783). Swedish. Botanist. Son of
Carl Linnaeus and Sara Elisabet Linnaea.
Brother of Elisabeth Christina, Louisa,
Sara Christina and Sophia Linnaea.
Attended his father’s lectures, had
private tutors (Löfling, Rolander,
Solander and Falk, all Linnaeus’s
students). Demonstrator of botany at
Uppsala. Succeeded his
father.
]. Having learnt docismacy [to assay minerals] at Celeferd, Ruiz Pabón practised for two months under Mútis’s supervision. A few days ago they left Santa Fé de Bogotá and visited the mines of Ybague where Ruiz Pabón practioned what he had learnt. Ruiz Pabón, Escallon and everybody else send their regards. Mútis asks to be remembered to Linnaeus’s son.

P.S. Mútis has some remarks regarding his first collection:
1. Callisia and Tradescantia
14. Alchemilla aphanoides
13. A new genus
16. Rhexia bogotensis
17. A plant unknown to Linnaeus
20. Datura arborea
21. He thanks Linnaeus for the remarkable plant that he has dedicated to him.
22. Basella
26, 27. Viburnum
28, 29. Logia
30, 62, 63. Might be the same as no. 114
31. Spiraea argentea
34. The order cannot be determined
36. The genus cannot be determined
37. It might be Erythalis
56. Viola
57, 58. Hypericum
59. Polygala aestuans
70-72. Andromeda and Gaultheria
88. Quadria and Hypericum laurinum
89. Carica papaya and Cinchona bogotensis
93. Pehr Löfling’sLöfling, Pehr (1729-1756).
Swedish. Botanist and explorer. Studied
under Linnaeus. Went to Spain in 1751
and took part in the Spanish expedition
to Venezuela in 1754, where he died.
Correspondent of Linnaeus.
Hermesias and Nicolaus Joseph, baron von Jacquin’sJacquin, Nicolaus Joseph, baron von
(1727-1817). Dutch. Botanist. In
1755 at the order of emperor Franz I of
Austria he went to the Antilles and
South America. In 1763 he became
professor of mineralogy and chemistry at
Chemnitz, later professor of botany at
Vienna and director of the botanical
garden at Schönbrunn. Correspondent
of Linnaeus.
Brownea
110. A plant of which he longs to see the flowers
119. Melastoma
122. Myrtoidea
123. Scutellaria
124. A plant that might belong to the Vaccinioides
138, 139. Melongena and Solanum or Capsicum
140. Mútis has delineated a floret.
143. Sibthorpia and Escallonia

There are remarks regarding the first collection of illustrations.
1, 2, 3. Logia and Calceolaria
14. A plant that belongs to Gynandria Diandria
19. A dioecious tree

Mútis has some remarks regarding his second collection:
1. Mimosa?
5, 6, 7. Seeds are discussed.
8. Lobelia?
9. Cuscuta?
13. Tagetes?
23. Jeussiaea
24. Rubus
36. Lobelia?
38. Cleome?
43. Tradescantia
45, 46. Seeds are discussed.
49. Guayabita
58. Aristolochia
59, 60. Mespilus
61. Davilia
62. A remarkable plant
63. Solanum
64. Begonia
65. Epidendrum?
66. Epilobium?
71. Lythrum?
72. Lythrum?
73. Reference to no. 126
74. Physalis
75. Ref. to no. 37
76. Epidendrum
78. A plant related to Rhexia
79. Cassia
80. Reference to no. 119. Mútis believes it to be Melastoma
81. Lobelia
82. Castilleja
83. Mirtoidea
84. Copaifera
86. Mútis sent a description of this plant in an earlier letter.
89. A plant wrongly believed to be Cinchona by the inhabitants of Guyana
90. Passiflora
93. Gualtheria
94. Pentandra monogyna
95. Mútis wonders whether it is different from the preceding plant.
102. Phytolacca
103. Senecio
104. Malva
107. Lathyrus
108. Reference to no. 16
108. (b) Berberis
109. Veronica
111. Rhexia
112. References to earlier mentioned plants
113. Reference to no. 143
114. References to earlier mentioned plants
115. Rhexia
116. Calceolaria perfoliata
117. Palavia
118. Scutellaria

Mútis sends syngenesious plants that cause him difficulties. He has sent Fulica.

There are descriptions of the following plants:
1. A plant that Mútis once believed to be Krameria
2. Plumieria
3. Pentandra monogyna
4. Carica
5. A didynamous angiosperm plant

There are further descriptions:
1. An unknown plant [Linnaeus has added Gomozia]
2. Solanum
3. Brabejum
4. An unknown bush [Linnaeus has added Tournefortia]
5. An unknown plant [Linnaeus has added Tradescantia]
6. Fuchsia 7. Vergilia [Linnaeus has added Styrax?]
10. Bocconia
11. Jacquinia
12. Quadria [Linnaeus has added Hypericum polyadelphia]

Mútis wants Linnaeus to dedicate this plant to Juan Francisco de la Bodega y QuadraBodega y Quadra, Juan Francisco de la
(1743-1794). Spanish. Naval
officer and explorer.
, who is a very diligent botanist.

He will write to Clas AlströmerAlströmer, Clas
(1736-1794). Swedish. Baron,
industrialist. Sent plants and specimens
to Linnaeus from his travels abroad.
Bought Linnaeus’s “little herbarium”,
now in the Natural History Museum in
Stockholm. Son of Jonas Alströmer,
brother of August, Johan and Patrick
Alströmer. Correspondent of
Linnaeus
regarding Viverra [Viverra putorius]. Mútis has constructed a new genus called Logia.

There are further descriptions:
1. A plant from the province of Giron, the Ipecacuanha
2. Escallonia [Linnaeus has added that it is a species of Loranthus]
1. Fernandezia, Narcissus montanum
4. Caucho Marigutense; Mutis has called it Bejaria
9. Ruizia [Linnaeus has added that it might be a species of Blakea]
8. Bejaria
5. An unknown shrub
6. Navarria
7. Vallea
8. Alstonia
15. Hambergeria
16. A shrubby plant
17. Rosa morcate
18. A shrub with the habit of Ruizia
19. A half-shrub
20. Bergenia
21. A root
22. Ternstroemia
23. A tree

upMANUSCRIPTS

a. original holograph (LS, XI, 97-100). [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

upEDITIONS

1. A selection (1821), vol. 2, p. 526-535   p.526  p.527  p.528  p.529  p.530  p.531  p.532  p.533  p.534  p.535.